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Network Graphs in Python

How to make Network Graphs in Python with Plotly. One examples of a network graph with NetworkX


If you're using Dash Enterprise's Data Science Workspaces, you can copy/paste any of these cells into a Workspace Jupyter notebook.
Alternatively, download this entire tutorial as a Jupyter notebook and import it into your Workspace.
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New to Plotly?

Plotly is a free and open-source graphing library for Python. We recommend you read our Getting Started guide for the latest installation or upgrade instructions, then move on to our Plotly Fundamentals tutorials or dive straight in to some Basic Charts tutorials.

In this example we show how to visualize a network graph created using networkx.

Install the Python library networkx with pip install networkx.

Create random graph

In [1]:
import plotly.graph_objects as go

import networkx as nx

G = nx.random_geometric_graph(200, 0.125)

Create Edges

Add edges as disconnected lines in a single trace and nodes as a scatter trace

In [2]:
edge_x = []
edge_y = []
for edge in G.edges():
    x0, y0 = G.nodes[edge[0]]['pos']
    x1, y1 = G.nodes[edge[1]]['pos']
    edge_x.append(x0)
    edge_x.append(x1)
    edge_x.append(None)
    edge_y.append(y0)
    edge_y.append(y1)
    edge_y.append(None)

edge_trace = go.Scatter(
    x=edge_x, y=edge_y,
    line=dict(width=0.5, color='#888'),
    hoverinfo='none',
    mode='lines')

node_x = []
node_y = []
for node in G.nodes():
    x, y = G.nodes[node]['pos']
    node_x.append(x)
    node_y.append(y)

node_trace = go.Scatter(
    x=node_x, y=node_y,
    mode='markers',
    hoverinfo='text',
    marker=dict(
        showscale=True,
        # colorscale options
        #'Greys' | 'YlGnBu' | 'Greens' | 'YlOrRd' | 'Bluered' | 'RdBu' |
        #'Reds' | 'Blues' | 'Picnic' | 'Rainbow' | 'Portland' | 'Jet' |
        #'Hot' | 'Blackbody' | 'Earth' | 'Electric' | 'Viridis' |
        colorscale='YlGnBu',
        reversescale=True,
        color=[],
        size=10,
        colorbar=dict(
            thickness=15,
            title='Node Connections',
            xanchor='left',
            titleside='right'
        ),
        line_width=2))

Color Node Points

Color node points by the number of connections.

Another option would be to size points by the number of connections i.e. node_trace.marker.size = node_adjacencies

In [3]:
node_adjacencies = []
node_text = []
for node, adjacencies in enumerate(G.adjacency()):
    node_adjacencies.append(len(adjacencies[1]))
    node_text.append('# of connections: '+str(len(adjacencies[1])))

node_trace.marker.color = node_adjacencies
node_trace.text = node_text

Create Network Graph

In [4]:
fig = go.Figure(data=[edge_trace, node_trace],
             layout=go.Layout(
                title='<br>Network graph made with Python',
                titlefont_size=16,
                showlegend=False,
                hovermode='closest',
                margin=dict(b=20,l=5,r=5,t=40),
                annotations=[ dict(
                    text="Python code: <a href='https://plotly.com/ipython-notebooks/network-graphs/'> https://plotly.com/ipython-notebooks/network-graphs/</a>",
                    showarrow=False,
                    xref="paper", yref="paper",
                    x=0.005, y=-0.002 ) ],
                xaxis=dict(showgrid=False, zeroline=False, showticklabels=False),
                yaxis=dict(showgrid=False, zeroline=False, showticklabels=False))
                )
fig.show()

Reference

See https://plotly.com/python/reference/scatter/ for more information and chart attribute options!

What About Dash?

Dash is an open-source framework for building analytical applications, with no Javascript required, and it is tightly integrated with the Plotly graphing library.

Learn about how to install Dash at https://dash.plot.ly/installation.

Everywhere in this page that you see fig.show(), you can display the same figure in a Dash application by passing it to the figure argument of the Graph component from the built-in dash_core_components package like this:

import plotly.graph_objects as go # or plotly.express as px
fig = go.Figure() # or any Plotly Express function e.g. px.bar(...)
# fig.add_trace( ... )
# fig.update_layout( ... )

import dash
import dash_core_components as dcc
import dash_html_components as html

app = dash.Dash()
app.layout = html.Div([
    dcc.Graph(figure=fig)
])

app.run_server(debug=True, use_reloader=False)  # Turn off reloader if inside Jupyter