# plotting the density of states and the band diagram using pymatgen and plotly in Python/v3

Plotting Density of States with Plotly and Pymatgen

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# Plotting Density of States with Plotly and Pymatgen¶

This notebook was contributed by plotly user Germain Salvato-Vallverdu. You can follow him on GitHub or visit his webpage.

### Introduction¶

This notebook will go over an example for plotting the density of states and the band diagram of Silicon using python with pymatgen and plotly packages.

• pymatgen : (Python Materials Genomics) A robust, open-source Python library for materials analysis.
• plotly : A platform for publishing beautiful, interactive graphs from Python to the web.

Firstly, we import numpy and pymatgen tools

In :
import numpy as np
from pymatgen.io.vaspio.vasp_output import Vasprun    # read vasprun.xml output file of VASP
from pymatgen.electronic_structure.core import Spin


Next, we import plotly tools

In :
import plotly.plotly as pltly      # plotting functions
import plotly.tools as tls         # plotly tools
import plotly.graph_objs as go     # plot and configuration tools : Scatter, Line, Layout


# Band Diagram and Denisty of States of Silicon¶

### 1) Plot the density of states¶

First, read projected density of states (DOS) from a VASP calculation on "./DOS/vasprun.xml" file using pymatgen.

In :
dosrun = Vasprun("./DOS/vasprun.xml")
spd_dos = dosrun.complete_dos.get_spd_dos()


Set up the scatter plots for the total DOS and the contribution of 3s and 3p atomic orbital to the total DOS.

In :
# total DOS
trace_tdos = go.Scatter(
x=dosrun.tdos.densities[Spin.up],
y=dosrun.tdos.energies - dosrun.efermi,
mode="lines",
name="total DOS",
line=go.Line(color="#444444"),
fill="tozeroy"
)
# 3s contribution to the total DOS
trace_3s = go.Scatter(
x=spd_dos["S"].densities[Spin.up],
y=dosrun.tdos.energies - dosrun.efermi,
mode="lines",
name="3s",
line=go.Line(color="red")
)
# 3p contribution to the total DOS
trace_3p = go.Scatter(
x=spd_dos["P"].densities[Spin.up],
y=dosrun.tdos.energies - dosrun.efermi,
mode="lines",
name="3p",
line=go.Line(color="green")
)
dosdata = go.Data([trace_tdos, trace_3s, trace_3p])


Customize axes and general aspect of the plot.

In :
dosxaxis = go.XAxis(
title="Density of states",
showgrid=True,
showline=True,
range=[.01, 3],
mirror="ticks",
ticks="inside",
linewidth=2,
tickwidth=2
)
dosyaxis = go.YAxis(
title="$E - E_f \quad / \quad \\text{eV}$",
showgrid=True,
showline=True,
ticks="inside",
mirror='ticks',
linewidth=2,
tickwidth=2,
zerolinewidth=2
)
doslayout = go.Layout(
title="Density of states of Silicon",
xaxis=dosxaxis,
yaxis=dosyaxis
)

In :
dosfig = go.Figure(data=dosdata, layout=doslayout)
plot_url = pltly.plot(dosfig, filename="DOS_Si", auto_open=False)
tls.embed(plot_url)

Out:

### 2) Plot the band diagram¶

First, read bands from a VASP calculation on "./Bandes/vasprun.xml" file using pymatgen.

In :
run = Vasprun("./Bandes/vasprun.xml", parse_projected_eigen = True)
bands = run.get_band_structure("./Bandes/KPOINTS", line_mode=True, efermi=dosrun.efermi)


Look for the boundaries of the band diagram in order to set up y axes range.

In :
emin = 1e100
emax = -1e100
for spin in bands.bands.keys():
for band in range(bands.nb_bands):
emin = min(emin, min(bands.bands[spin][band]))
emax = max(emax, max(bands.bands[spin][band]))
emin = emin - bands.efermi - 1
emax = emax - bands.efermi + 1


Each band is plotted using a scatter plot.

In :
kptslist = [k for k in range(len(bands.kpoints))]
bandTraces = list()
for band in range(bands.nb_bands):
bandTraces.append(
go.Scatter(
x=kptslist,
y=[e - bands.efermi for e in bands.bands[Spin.up][band]],
mode="lines",
line=go.Line(color="#666666"),
showlegend=False
)
)


Add vertical lines at each high symmetry k-points and a label at the bottom.

In :
labels = [r"$L$", r"$\Gamma$", r"$X$", r"$U,K$", r"$\Gamma$"]
step = len(bands.kpoints) / (len(labels) - 1)
# vertical lines
vlines = list()
for i, label in enumerate(labels):
vlines.append(
go.Scatter(
x=[i * step, i * step],
y=[emin, emax],
mode="lines",
line=go.Line(color="#111111", width=1),
showlegend=False
)
)
# Labels of highsymetry k-points are added as Annotation object
annotations = list()
for i, label in enumerate(labels):
annotations.append(
go.Annotation(
x=i * step, y=emin,
xref="x1", yref="y1",
text=label,
xanchor="center", yanchor="top",
showarrow=False
)
)


Customize axes and general aspect of the plot.

In :
bandxaxis = go.XAxis(
title="k-points",
range=[0, len(bands.kpoints)],
showgrid=True,
showline=True,
ticks="",
showticklabels=False,
mirror=True,
linewidth=2
)
bandyaxis = go.YAxis(
title="$E - E_f \quad / \quad \\text{eV}$",
range=[emin, emax],
showgrid=True,
showline=True,
zeroline=True,
mirror="ticks",
ticks="inside",
linewidth=2,
tickwidth=2,
zerolinewidth=2
)
bandlayout = go.Layout(
title="Bands diagram of Silicon",
xaxis=bandxaxis,
yaxis=bandyaxis,
annotations=go.Annotations(annotations)
)

In :
bandfig = go.Figure(data=bandTraces + vlines, layout=bandlayout)
plot_url = pltly.plot(bandfig, filename="Bands_Si", auto_open=False)
tls.embed(plot_url)

Out:

### 3) Use subplots to plot DOS and bands together¶

We will now make a figure with both the band diagram and the density of states using the make_subplots facility. First, we set up a figure with two columns, one row. At the end, the two plots will share y axis.

In :
dosbandfig = tls.make_subplots(rows=1, cols=2, shared_yaxes=True)

This is the format of your plot grid:
[ (1,1) x1,y1 ]  [ (1,2) x2,y1 ]



We use the previously defined traces for the band and the densities of state and add them to the figure object.

• The bands are plotted on the left subplot (1, 1)
• The densities of states are plotted on the right subplot (1, 2)
In :
# add the bands
for btrace in bandTraces:
dosbandfig.append_trace(btrace, 1, 1)
# add vlines for specific k-points
for vline in vlines:
dosbandfig.append_trace(vline, 1, 1)
dosbandfig.append_trace(trace_tdos, 1, 2)
dosbandfig.append_trace(trace_3s, 1, 2)
dosbandfig.append_trace(trace_3p, 1, 2)


Customize axes and general aspect of the plot using previously defined axis and layout options. The "domain" of each subplot is also define.

In :
dosbandfig["layout"].update(
go.Layout(
title="Bands diagram and density of states of Silicon",
xaxis1=bandxaxis,
yaxis1=bandyaxis,
xaxis2=dosxaxis,
annotations=go.Annotations(annotations)
)
)
dosbandfig["layout"]["xaxis1"]["domain"] = [0., 0.7]
dosbandfig["layout"]["xaxis2"]["domain"] = [0.702, 1.]
dosbandfig["layout"]["yaxis1"]["mirror"] = "allticks"
dosbandfig["layout"]["xaxis2"]["mirror"] = "allticks"

In :
plot_url = pltly.plot(dosbandfig, filename="DOS_bands_Si", auto_open=False)
tls.embed(plot_url)

Out:

### 4) Atomic orbital contributions in bands using a color scale¶

As previously done for the density of states, the contribution of 3s and 3p atomic orbital may be highlighted using a color scale. The main idea, from this example, is to normalize atomic orbital contributions and build the RGB code of the color from these contributions.

Thus, we first compute atomic orbital normalized contributions from projected bands :

In :
# extract projected bands
name = "Si"
pbands = bands.get_projections_on_elts_and_orbitals({name: ["s", "p", "d"]})

# compute contributions
contrib = np.zeros((bands.nb_bands, len(bands.kpoints), 3))
for band in range(bands.nb_bands):
for k in range(len(bands.kpoints)):
sc = pbands[Spin.up][band][k][name]["s"]**2
pc = pbands[Spin.up][band][k][name]["p"]**2
dc = pbands[Spin.up][band][k][name]["d"]**2
tot = sc + pc + dc
if tot != 0.0:
contrib[band, k, 0] = sc / tot
contrib[band, k, 1] = pc / tot
contrib[band, k, 2] = dc / tot


Now for each band, for each couple of consecutive points, we plot a line plot with a specific color, defined from the atomic orbital contributions to the current band.

In :
colorBands = list() # will contain the list of all lines
nkpts = len(bands.kpoints)
for band in range(bands.nb_bands):
eband = [e - bands.efermi for e in bands.bands[Spin.up][band]]
for k in range(nkpts - 1):
red, green, blue = [int(255 * (contrib[band, k, i] + contrib[band, k+1, i])/2) for i in range(3)]
colorBands.append(
go.Scatter(
x=[k, k+1],
y=[eband[k], eband[k+1]],
mode="lines",
line=go.Line(color="rgb({}, {}, {})".format(red, green, blue)),
showlegend=False
)
)


As previously, two subplots are used to plot the band diagram on the left and the density of states on the right.

In :
# set up a new figure with two subplots
colorbandfig = tls.make_subplots(rows=1, cols=2, shared_yaxes=True)
# add the bands in the first subplot
for btrace in colorBands:
colorbandfig.append_trace(btrace, 1, 1)
# add vlines for specific k-points in the first subplot
for vline in vlines:
colorbandfig.append_trace(vline, 1, 1)
# add the densities in the second subplot
colorbandfig.append_trace(trace_tdos, 1, 2)
colorbandfig.append_trace(trace_3s, 1, 2)
colorbandfig.append_trace(trace_3p, 1, 2)
# Layout configuration
colorbandfig["layout"].update(
go.Layout(
title="Bands diagram and density of states of Silicon",
xaxis1=bandxaxis,
yaxis1=bandyaxis,
xaxis2=dosxaxis,
annotations=go.Annotations(annotations)
)
)
colorbandfig["layout"]["xaxis1"]["domain"] = [0., 0.7]
colorbandfig["layout"]["xaxis2"]["domain"] = [0.702, 1.]
colorbandfig["layout"]["yaxis1"]["mirror"] = "allticks"
colorbandfig["layout"]["xaxis2"]["mirror"] = "allticks"
legend = go.Legend(
x=.98, y=.98,
xanchor="right", yanchor="top",
bordercolor='#333', borderwidth=1
)
colorbandfig["layout"]["legend"] = legend
# do the plot
plot_url = pltly.plot(colorbandfig, filename="DOS_bands_Si_color", auto_open=False)
tls.embed(plot_url)

This is the format of your plot grid:
[ (1,1) x1,y1 ]  [ (1,2) x2,y1 ]


Out: 