plotly.express package

plotly.express is a terse, consistent, high-level wrapper around plotly.graph_objects for rapid data exploration and figure generation. Learn more at https://plotly.express/

class plotly.express.Constant(value, label=None)

Bases: object

Objects of this class can be passed to Plotly Express functions that expect column identifiers or list-like objects to indicate that this attribute should take on a constant value. An optional label can be provided.

class plotly.express.IdentityMap

Bases: object

dict-like object which acts as if the value for any key is the key itself. Objects of this class can be passed in to arguments like color_discrete_map to use the provided data values as colors, rather than mapping them to colors cycled from color_discrete_sequence. This works for any _map argument to Plotly Express functions, such as line_dash_map and symbol_map.

copy()
class plotly.express.Range(label=None)

Bases: object

Objects of this class can be passed to Plotly Express functions that expect column identifiers or list-like objects to indicate that this attribute should be mapped onto integers starting at 0. An optional label can be provided.

plotly.express.area(data_frame=None, x=None, y=None, line_group=None, color=None, hover_name=None, hover_data=None, custom_data=None, text=None, facet_row=None, facet_col=None, facet_col_wrap=0, facet_row_spacing=None, facet_col_spacing=None, animation_frame=None, animation_group=None, category_orders={}, labels={}, color_discrete_sequence=None, color_discrete_map={}, orientation=None, groupnorm=None, log_x=False, log_y=False, range_x=None, range_y=None, line_shape=None, title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None)

In a stacked area plot, each row of data_frame is represented as vertex of a polyline mark in 2D space. The area between successive polylines is filled.

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • x (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the x axis in cartesian coordinates. Either x or y can optionally be a list of column references or array_likes, in which case the data will be treated as if it were ‘wide’ rather than ‘long’.

  • y (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the y axis in cartesian coordinates. Either x or y can optionally be a list of column references or array_likes, in which case the data will be treated as if it were ‘wide’ rather than ‘long’.

  • line_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to group rows of data_frame into lines.

  • color (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign color to marks.

  • hover_name (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in bold in the hover tooltip.

  • hover_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like, or dict) – Either a list of names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects or a dict with column names as keys, with values True (for default formatting) False (in order to remove this column from hover information), or a formatting string, for example ‘:.3f’ or ‘|%a’ or list-like data to appear in the hover tooltip or tuples with a bool or formatting string as first element, and list-like data to appear in hover as second element Values from these columns appear as extra data in the hover tooltip.

  • custom_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects Values from these columns are extra data, to be used in widgets or Dash callbacks for example. This data is not user-visible but is included in events emitted by the figure (lasso selection etc.)

  • text (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in the figure as text labels.

  • facet_row (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to facetted subplots in the vertical direction.

  • facet_col (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to facetted subplots in the horizontal direction.

  • facet_col_wrap (int) – Maximum number of facet columns. Wraps the column variable at this width, so that the column facets span multiple rows. Ignored if 0, and forced to 0 if facet_row or a marginal is set.

  • facet_row_spacing (float between 0 and 1) – Spacing between facet rows, in paper units. Default is 0.03 or 0.0.7 when facet_col_wrap is used.

  • facet_col_spacing (float between 0 and 1) – Spacing between facet columns, in paper units Default is 0.02.

  • animation_frame (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to animation frames.

  • animation_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to provide object-constancy across animation frames: rows with matching `animation_group`s will be treated as if they describe the same object in each frame.

  • category_orders (dict with str keys and list of str values (default {})) – By default, in Python 3.6+, the order of categorical values in axes, legends and facets depends on the order in which these values are first encountered in data_frame (and no order is guaranteed by default in Python below 3.6). This parameter is used to force a specific ordering of values per column. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should be lists of strings corresponding to the specific display order desired.

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • color_discrete_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors. When color is set and the values in the corresponding column are not numeric, values in that column are assigned colors by cycling through color_discrete_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of color is a key in color_discrete_map. Various useful color sequences are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.qualitative.

  • color_discrete_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define valid CSS-colors Used to override color_discrete_sequence to assign a specific colors to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in color_discrete_map should be values in the column denoted by color. Alternatively, if the values of color are valid colors, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • orientation (str, one of 'h' for horizontal or 'v' for vertical.) – (default 'v' if x and y are provided and both continous or both categorical, otherwise 'v'`(‘h’) if `x`(`y) is categorical and y`(`x) is continuous, otherwise 'v'`(‘h’) if only `x`(`y) is provided)

  • groupnorm (str (default None)) – One of 'fraction' or 'percent'. If 'fraction', the value of each point is divided by the sum of all values at that location coordinate. 'percent' is the same but multiplied by 100 to show percentages. None will stack up all values at each location coordinate.

  • log_x (boolean (default False)) – If True, the x-axis is log-scaled in cartesian coordinates.

  • log_y (boolean (default False)) – If True, the y-axis is log-scaled in cartesian coordinates.

  • range_x (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the x-axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • range_y (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the y-axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • line_shape (str (default 'linear')) – One of 'linear' or 'spline'.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

plotly.express.bar(data_frame=None, x=None, y=None, color=None, facet_row=None, facet_col=None, facet_col_wrap=0, facet_row_spacing=None, facet_col_spacing=None, hover_name=None, hover_data=None, custom_data=None, text=None, base=None, error_x=None, error_x_minus=None, error_y=None, error_y_minus=None, animation_frame=None, animation_group=None, category_orders={}, labels={}, color_discrete_sequence=None, color_discrete_map={}, color_continuous_scale=None, range_color=None, color_continuous_midpoint=None, opacity=None, orientation=None, barmode='relative', log_x=False, log_y=False, range_x=None, range_y=None, title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None)

In a bar plot, each row of data_frame is represented as a rectangular mark.

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • x (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the x axis in cartesian coordinates. Either x or y can optionally be a list of column references or array_likes, in which case the data will be treated as if it were ‘wide’ rather than ‘long’.

  • y (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the y axis in cartesian coordinates. Either x or y can optionally be a list of column references or array_likes, in which case the data will be treated as if it were ‘wide’ rather than ‘long’.

  • color (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign color to marks.

  • facet_row (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to facetted subplots in the vertical direction.

  • facet_col (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to facetted subplots in the horizontal direction.

  • facet_col_wrap (int) – Maximum number of facet columns. Wraps the column variable at this width, so that the column facets span multiple rows. Ignored if 0, and forced to 0 if facet_row or a marginal is set.

  • facet_row_spacing (float between 0 and 1) – Spacing between facet rows, in paper units. Default is 0.03 or 0.0.7 when facet_col_wrap is used.

  • facet_col_spacing (float between 0 and 1) – Spacing between facet columns, in paper units Default is 0.02.

  • hover_name (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in bold in the hover tooltip.

  • hover_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like, or dict) – Either a list of names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects or a dict with column names as keys, with values True (for default formatting) False (in order to remove this column from hover information), or a formatting string, for example ‘:.3f’ or ‘|%a’ or list-like data to appear in the hover tooltip or tuples with a bool or formatting string as first element, and list-like data to appear in hover as second element Values from these columns appear as extra data in the hover tooltip.

  • custom_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects Values from these columns are extra data, to be used in widgets or Dash callbacks for example. This data is not user-visible but is included in events emitted by the figure (lasso selection etc.)

  • text (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in the figure as text labels.

  • base (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position the base of the bar.

  • error_x (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to size x-axis error bars. If error_x_minus is None, error bars will be symmetrical, otherwise error_x is used for the positive direction only.

  • error_x_minus (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to size x-axis error bars in the negative direction. Ignored if error_x is None.

  • error_y (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to size y-axis error bars. If error_y_minus is None, error bars will be symmetrical, otherwise error_y is used for the positive direction only.

  • error_y_minus (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to size y-axis error bars in the negative direction. Ignored if error_y is None.

  • animation_frame (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to animation frames.

  • animation_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to provide object-constancy across animation frames: rows with matching `animation_group`s will be treated as if they describe the same object in each frame.

  • category_orders (dict with str keys and list of str values (default {})) – By default, in Python 3.6+, the order of categorical values in axes, legends and facets depends on the order in which these values are first encountered in data_frame (and no order is guaranteed by default in Python below 3.6). This parameter is used to force a specific ordering of values per column. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should be lists of strings corresponding to the specific display order desired.

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • color_discrete_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors. When color is set and the values in the corresponding column are not numeric, values in that column are assigned colors by cycling through color_discrete_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of color is a key in color_discrete_map. Various useful color sequences are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.qualitative.

  • color_discrete_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define valid CSS-colors Used to override color_discrete_sequence to assign a specific colors to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in color_discrete_map should be values in the column denoted by color. Alternatively, if the values of color are valid colors, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • color_continuous_scale (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors This list is used to build a continuous color scale when the column denoted by color contains numeric data. Various useful color scales are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.sequential, plotly.express.colors.diverging and plotly.express.colors.cyclical.

  • range_color (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the continuous color scale.

  • color_continuous_midpoint (number (default None)) – If set, computes the bounds of the continuous color scale to have the desired midpoint. Setting this value is recommended when using plotly.express.colors.diverging color scales as the inputs to color_continuous_scale.

  • opacity (float) – Value between 0 and 1. Sets the opacity for markers.

  • orientation (str, one of 'h' for horizontal or 'v' for vertical.) – (default 'v' if x and y are provided and both continous or both categorical, otherwise 'v'`(‘h’) if `x`(`y) is categorical and y`(`x) is continuous, otherwise 'v'`(‘h’) if only `x`(`y) is provided)

  • barmode (str (default 'relative')) – One of 'group', 'overlay' or 'relative' In 'relative' mode, bars are stacked above zero for positive values and below zero for negative values. In 'overlay' mode, bars are drawn on top of one another. In 'group' mode, bars are placed beside each other.

  • log_x (boolean (default False)) – If True, the x-axis is log-scaled in cartesian coordinates.

  • log_y (boolean (default False)) – If True, the y-axis is log-scaled in cartesian coordinates.

  • range_x (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the x-axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • range_y (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the y-axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

plotly.express.bar_polar(data_frame=None, r=None, theta=None, color=None, hover_name=None, hover_data=None, custom_data=None, base=None, animation_frame=None, animation_group=None, category_orders={}, labels={}, color_discrete_sequence=None, color_discrete_map={}, color_continuous_scale=None, range_color=None, color_continuous_midpoint=None, barnorm=None, barmode='relative', direction='clockwise', start_angle=90, range_r=None, range_theta=None, log_r=False, title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None)

In a polar bar plot, each row of data_frame is represented as a wedge mark in polar coordinates.

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • r (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the radial axis in polar coordinates.

  • theta (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the angular axis in polar coordinates.

  • color (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign color to marks.

  • hover_name (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in bold in the hover tooltip.

  • hover_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like, or dict) – Either a list of names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects or a dict with column names as keys, with values True (for default formatting) False (in order to remove this column from hover information), or a formatting string, for example ‘:.3f’ or ‘|%a’ or list-like data to appear in the hover tooltip or tuples with a bool or formatting string as first element, and list-like data to appear in hover as second element Values from these columns appear as extra data in the hover tooltip.

  • custom_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects Values from these columns are extra data, to be used in widgets or Dash callbacks for example. This data is not user-visible but is included in events emitted by the figure (lasso selection etc.)

  • base (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position the base of the bar.

  • animation_frame (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to animation frames.

  • animation_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to provide object-constancy across animation frames: rows with matching `animation_group`s will be treated as if they describe the same object in each frame.

  • category_orders (dict with str keys and list of str values (default {})) – By default, in Python 3.6+, the order of categorical values in axes, legends and facets depends on the order in which these values are first encountered in data_frame (and no order is guaranteed by default in Python below 3.6). This parameter is used to force a specific ordering of values per column. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should be lists of strings corresponding to the specific display order desired.

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • color_discrete_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors. When color is set and the values in the corresponding column are not numeric, values in that column are assigned colors by cycling through color_discrete_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of color is a key in color_discrete_map. Various useful color sequences are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.qualitative.

  • color_discrete_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define valid CSS-colors Used to override color_discrete_sequence to assign a specific colors to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in color_discrete_map should be values in the column denoted by color. Alternatively, if the values of color are valid colors, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • color_continuous_scale (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors This list is used to build a continuous color scale when the column denoted by color contains numeric data. Various useful color scales are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.sequential, plotly.express.colors.diverging and plotly.express.colors.cyclical.

  • range_color (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the continuous color scale.

  • color_continuous_midpoint (number (default None)) – If set, computes the bounds of the continuous color scale to have the desired midpoint. Setting this value is recommended when using plotly.express.colors.diverging color scales as the inputs to color_continuous_scale.

  • barnorm (str (default None)) – One of 'fraction' or 'percent'. If 'fraction', the value of each bar is divided by the sum of all values at that location coordinate. 'percent' is the same but multiplied by 100 to show percentages. None will stack up all values at each location coordinate.

  • barmode (str (default 'relative')) – One of 'group', 'overlay' or 'relative' In 'relative' mode, bars are stacked above zero for positive values and below zero for negative values. In 'overlay' mode, bars are drawn on top of one another. In 'group' mode, bars are placed beside each other.

  • direction (str) – One of ‘counterclockwise' or 'clockwise'. Default is 'clockwise' Sets the direction in which increasing values of the angular axis are drawn.

  • start_angle (int (default 90)) – Sets start angle for the angular axis, with 0 being due east and 90 being due north.

  • range_r (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the radial axis in polar coordinates.

  • range_theta (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the angular axis in polar coordinates.

  • log_r (boolean (default False)) – If True, the radial axis is log-scaled in polar coordinates.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

plotly.express.box(data_frame=None, x=None, y=None, color=None, facet_row=None, facet_col=None, facet_col_wrap=0, facet_row_spacing=None, facet_col_spacing=None, hover_name=None, hover_data=None, custom_data=None, animation_frame=None, animation_group=None, category_orders={}, labels={}, color_discrete_sequence=None, color_discrete_map={}, orientation=None, boxmode=None, log_x=False, log_y=False, range_x=None, range_y=None, points=None, notched=False, title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None)

In a box plot, rows of data_frame are grouped together into a box-and-whisker mark to visualize their distribution.

Each box spans from quartile 1 (Q1) to quartile 3 (Q3). The second quartile (Q2) is marked by a line inside the box. By default, the whiskers correspond to the box’ edges +/- 1.5 times the interquartile range (IQR: Q3-Q1), see “points” for other options.

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • x (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the x axis in cartesian coordinates. Either x or y can optionally be a list of column references or array_likes, in which case the data will be treated as if it were ‘wide’ rather than ‘long’.

  • y (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the y axis in cartesian coordinates. Either x or y can optionally be a list of column references or array_likes, in which case the data will be treated as if it were ‘wide’ rather than ‘long’.

  • color (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign color to marks.

  • facet_row (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to facetted subplots in the vertical direction.

  • facet_col (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to facetted subplots in the horizontal direction.

  • facet_col_wrap (int) – Maximum number of facet columns. Wraps the column variable at this width, so that the column facets span multiple rows. Ignored if 0, and forced to 0 if facet_row or a marginal is set.

  • facet_row_spacing (float between 0 and 1) – Spacing between facet rows, in paper units. Default is 0.03 or 0.0.7 when facet_col_wrap is used.

  • facet_col_spacing (float between 0 and 1) – Spacing between facet columns, in paper units Default is 0.02.

  • hover_name (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in bold in the hover tooltip.

  • hover_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like, or dict) – Either a list of names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects or a dict with column names as keys, with values True (for default formatting) False (in order to remove this column from hover information), or a formatting string, for example ‘:.3f’ or ‘|%a’ or list-like data to appear in the hover tooltip or tuples with a bool or formatting string as first element, and list-like data to appear in hover as second element Values from these columns appear as extra data in the hover tooltip.

  • custom_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects Values from these columns are extra data, to be used in widgets or Dash callbacks for example. This data is not user-visible but is included in events emitted by the figure (lasso selection etc.)

  • animation_frame (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to animation frames.

  • animation_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to provide object-constancy across animation frames: rows with matching `animation_group`s will be treated as if they describe the same object in each frame.

  • category_orders (dict with str keys and list of str values (default {})) – By default, in Python 3.6+, the order of categorical values in axes, legends and facets depends on the order in which these values are first encountered in data_frame (and no order is guaranteed by default in Python below 3.6). This parameter is used to force a specific ordering of values per column. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should be lists of strings corresponding to the specific display order desired.

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • color_discrete_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors. When color is set and the values in the corresponding column are not numeric, values in that column are assigned colors by cycling through color_discrete_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of color is a key in color_discrete_map. Various useful color sequences are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.qualitative.

  • color_discrete_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define valid CSS-colors Used to override color_discrete_sequence to assign a specific colors to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in color_discrete_map should be values in the column denoted by color. Alternatively, if the values of color are valid colors, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • orientation (str, one of 'h' for horizontal or 'v' for vertical.) – (default 'v' if x and y are provided and both continous or both categorical, otherwise 'v'`(‘h’) if `x`(`y) is categorical and y`(`x) is continuous, otherwise 'v'`(‘h’) if only `x`(`y) is provided)

  • boxmode (str (default 'group')) – One of 'group' or 'overlay' In 'overlay' mode, boxes are on drawn top of one another. In 'group' mode, baxes are placed beside each other.

  • log_x (boolean (default False)) – If True, the x-axis is log-scaled in cartesian coordinates.

  • log_y (boolean (default False)) – If True, the y-axis is log-scaled in cartesian coordinates.

  • range_x (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the x-axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • range_y (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the y-axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • points (str or boolean (default 'outliers')) – One of 'outliers', 'suspectedoutliers', 'all', or False. If 'outliers', only the sample points lying outside the whiskers are shown. If 'suspectedoutliers', all outlier points are shown and those less than 4*Q1-3*Q3 or greater than 4*Q3-3*Q1 are highlighted with the marker’s 'outliercolor'. If 'outliers', only the sample points lying outside the whiskers are shown. If 'all', all sample points are shown. If False, no sample points are shown and the whiskers extend to the full range of the sample.

  • notched (boolean (default False)) – If True, boxes are drawn with notches.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

plotly.express.choropleth(data_frame=None, lat=None, lon=None, locations=None, locationmode=None, geojson=None, featureidkey=None, color=None, hover_name=None, hover_data=None, custom_data=None, animation_frame=None, animation_group=None, category_orders={}, labels={}, color_discrete_sequence=None, color_discrete_map={}, color_continuous_scale=None, range_color=None, color_continuous_midpoint=None, projection=None, scope=None, center=None, title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None)

In a choropleth map, each row of data_frame is represented by a colored region mark on a map.

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • lat (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks according to latitude on a map.

  • lon (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks according to longitude on a map.

  • locations (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are to be interpreted according to locationmode and mapped to longitude/latitude.

  • locationmode (str) – One of ‘ISO-3’, ‘USA-states’, or ‘country names’ Determines the set of locations used to match entries in locations to regions on the map.

  • geojson (GeoJSON-formatted dict) – Must contain a Polygon feature collection, with IDs, which are references from locations.

  • featureidkey (str (default: 'id')) – Path to field in GeoJSON feature object with which to match the values passed in to locations.The most common alternative to the default is of the form 'properties.<key>.

  • color (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign color to marks.

  • hover_name (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in bold in the hover tooltip.

  • hover_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like, or dict) – Either a list of names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects or a dict with column names as keys, with values True (for default formatting) False (in order to remove this column from hover information), or a formatting string, for example ‘:.3f’ or ‘|%a’ or list-like data to appear in the hover tooltip or tuples with a bool or formatting string as first element, and list-like data to appear in hover as second element Values from these columns appear as extra data in the hover tooltip.

  • custom_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects Values from these columns are extra data, to be used in widgets or Dash callbacks for example. This data is not user-visible but is included in events emitted by the figure (lasso selection etc.)

  • animation_frame (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to animation frames.

  • animation_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to provide object-constancy across animation frames: rows with matching `animation_group`s will be treated as if they describe the same object in each frame.

  • category_orders (dict with str keys and list of str values (default {})) – By default, in Python 3.6+, the order of categorical values in axes, legends and facets depends on the order in which these values are first encountered in data_frame (and no order is guaranteed by default in Python below 3.6). This parameter is used to force a specific ordering of values per column. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should be lists of strings corresponding to the specific display order desired.

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • color_discrete_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors. When color is set and the values in the corresponding column are not numeric, values in that column are assigned colors by cycling through color_discrete_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of color is a key in color_discrete_map. Various useful color sequences are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.qualitative.

  • color_discrete_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define valid CSS-colors Used to override color_discrete_sequence to assign a specific colors to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in color_discrete_map should be values in the column denoted by color. Alternatively, if the values of color are valid colors, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • color_continuous_scale (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors This list is used to build a continuous color scale when the column denoted by color contains numeric data. Various useful color scales are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.sequential, plotly.express.colors.diverging and plotly.express.colors.cyclical.

  • range_color (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the continuous color scale.

  • color_continuous_midpoint (number (default None)) – If set, computes the bounds of the continuous color scale to have the desired midpoint. Setting this value is recommended when using plotly.express.colors.diverging color scales as the inputs to color_continuous_scale.

  • projection (str) – One of 'equirectangular', 'mercator', 'orthographic', 'natural earth', 'kavrayskiy7', 'miller', 'robinson', 'eckert4', 'azimuthal equal area', 'azimuthal equidistant', 'conic equal area', 'conic conformal', 'conic equidistant', 'gnomonic', 'stereographic', 'mollweide', 'hammer', 'transverse mercator', 'albers usa', 'winkel tripel', 'aitoff', or 'sinusoidal'`Default depends on `scope.

  • scope (str (default 'world').) – One of 'world', 'usa', 'europe', 'asia', 'africa', 'north america', or 'south america')Default is 'world' unless projection is set to 'albers usa', which forces 'usa'.

  • center (dict) – Dict keys are 'lat' and 'lon' Sets the center point of the map.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

plotly.express.choropleth_mapbox(data_frame=None, geojson=None, featureidkey=None, locations=None, color=None, hover_name=None, hover_data=None, custom_data=None, animation_frame=None, animation_group=None, category_orders={}, labels={}, color_discrete_sequence=None, color_discrete_map={}, color_continuous_scale=None, range_color=None, color_continuous_midpoint=None, opacity=None, zoom=8, center=None, mapbox_style=None, title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None)

In a Mapbox choropleth map, each row of data_frame is represented by a colored region on a Mapbox map.

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • geojson (GeoJSON-formatted dict) – Must contain a Polygon feature collection, with IDs, which are references from locations.

  • featureidkey (str (default: 'id')) – Path to field in GeoJSON feature object with which to match the values passed in to locations.The most common alternative to the default is of the form 'properties.<key>.

  • locations (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are to be interpreted according to locationmode and mapped to longitude/latitude.

  • color (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign color to marks.

  • hover_name (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in bold in the hover tooltip.

  • hover_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like, or dict) – Either a list of names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects or a dict with column names as keys, with values True (for default formatting) False (in order to remove this column from hover information), or a formatting string, for example ‘:.3f’ or ‘|%a’ or list-like data to appear in the hover tooltip or tuples with a bool or formatting string as first element, and list-like data to appear in hover as second element Values from these columns appear as extra data in the hover tooltip.

  • custom_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects Values from these columns are extra data, to be used in widgets or Dash callbacks for example. This data is not user-visible but is included in events emitted by the figure (lasso selection etc.)

  • animation_frame (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to animation frames.

  • animation_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to provide object-constancy across animation frames: rows with matching `animation_group`s will be treated as if they describe the same object in each frame.

  • category_orders (dict with str keys and list of str values (default {})) – By default, in Python 3.6+, the order of categorical values in axes, legends and facets depends on the order in which these values are first encountered in data_frame (and no order is guaranteed by default in Python below 3.6). This parameter is used to force a specific ordering of values per column. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should be lists of strings corresponding to the specific display order desired.

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • color_discrete_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors. When color is set and the values in the corresponding column are not numeric, values in that column are assigned colors by cycling through color_discrete_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of color is a key in color_discrete_map. Various useful color sequences are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.qualitative.

  • color_discrete_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define valid CSS-colors Used to override color_discrete_sequence to assign a specific colors to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in color_discrete_map should be values in the column denoted by color. Alternatively, if the values of color are valid colors, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • color_continuous_scale (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors This list is used to build a continuous color scale when the column denoted by color contains numeric data. Various useful color scales are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.sequential, plotly.express.colors.diverging and plotly.express.colors.cyclical.

  • range_color (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the continuous color scale.

  • color_continuous_midpoint (number (default None)) – If set, computes the bounds of the continuous color scale to have the desired midpoint. Setting this value is recommended when using plotly.express.colors.diverging color scales as the inputs to color_continuous_scale.

  • opacity (float) – Value between 0 and 1. Sets the opacity for markers.

  • zoom (int (default 8)) – Between 0 and 20. Sets map zoom level.

  • center (dict) – Dict keys are 'lat' and 'lon' Sets the center point of the map.

  • mapbox_style (str (default 'basic', needs Mapbox API token)) – Identifier of base map style, some of which require a Mapbox API token to be set using plotly.express.set_mapbox_access_token(). Allowed values which do not require a Mapbox API token are 'open-street-map', 'white-bg', 'carto-positron', 'carto-darkmatter', 'stamen- terrain', 'stamen-toner', 'stamen-watercolor'. Allowed values which do require a Mapbox API token are 'basic', 'streets', 'outdoors', 'light', 'dark', 'satellite', 'satellite- streets'.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

plotly.express.density_contour(data_frame=None, x=None, y=None, z=None, color=None, facet_row=None, facet_col=None, facet_col_wrap=0, facet_row_spacing=None, facet_col_spacing=None, hover_name=None, hover_data=None, animation_frame=None, animation_group=None, category_orders={}, labels={}, orientation=None, color_discrete_sequence=None, color_discrete_map={}, marginal_x=None, marginal_y=None, trendline=None, trendline_color_override=None, log_x=False, log_y=False, range_x=None, range_y=None, histfunc=None, histnorm=None, nbinsx=None, nbinsy=None, title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None)

In a density contour plot, rows of data_frame are grouped together into contour marks to visualize the 2D distribution of an aggregate function histfunc (e.g. the count or sum) of the value z.

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • x (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the x axis in cartesian coordinates. Either x or y can optionally be a list of column references or array_likes, in which case the data will be treated as if it were ‘wide’ rather than ‘long’.

  • y (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the y axis in cartesian coordinates. Either x or y can optionally be a list of column references or array_likes, in which case the data will be treated as if it were ‘wide’ rather than ‘long’.

  • z (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the z axis in cartesian coordinates. For density_heatmap and density_contour these values are used as the inputs to histfunc.

  • color (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign color to marks.

  • facet_row (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to facetted subplots in the vertical direction.

  • facet_col (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to facetted subplots in the horizontal direction.

  • facet_col_wrap (int) – Maximum number of facet columns. Wraps the column variable at this width, so that the column facets span multiple rows. Ignored if 0, and forced to 0 if facet_row or a marginal is set.

  • facet_row_spacing (float between 0 and 1) – Spacing between facet rows, in paper units. Default is 0.03 or 0.0.7 when facet_col_wrap is used.

  • facet_col_spacing (float between 0 and 1) – Spacing between facet columns, in paper units Default is 0.02.

  • hover_name (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in bold in the hover tooltip.

  • hover_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like, or dict) – Either a list of names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects or a dict with column names as keys, with values True (for default formatting) False (in order to remove this column from hover information), or a formatting string, for example ‘:.3f’ or ‘|%a’ or list-like data to appear in the hover tooltip or tuples with a bool or formatting string as first element, and list-like data to appear in hover as second element Values from these columns appear as extra data in the hover tooltip.

  • animation_frame (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to animation frames.

  • animation_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to provide object-constancy across animation frames: rows with matching `animation_group`s will be treated as if they describe the same object in each frame.

  • category_orders (dict with str keys and list of str values (default {})) – By default, in Python 3.6+, the order of categorical values in axes, legends and facets depends on the order in which these values are first encountered in data_frame (and no order is guaranteed by default in Python below 3.6). This parameter is used to force a specific ordering of values per column. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should be lists of strings corresponding to the specific display order desired.

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • orientation (str, one of 'h' for horizontal or 'v' for vertical.) – (default 'v' if x and y are provided and both continous or both categorical, otherwise 'v'`(‘h’) if `x`(`y) is categorical and y`(`x) is continuous, otherwise 'v'`(‘h’) if only `x`(`y) is provided)

  • color_discrete_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors. When color is set and the values in the corresponding column are not numeric, values in that column are assigned colors by cycling through color_discrete_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of color is a key in color_discrete_map. Various useful color sequences are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.qualitative.

  • color_discrete_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define valid CSS-colors Used to override color_discrete_sequence to assign a specific colors to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in color_discrete_map should be values in the column denoted by color. Alternatively, if the values of color are valid colors, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • marginal_x (str) – One of 'rug', 'box', 'violin', or 'histogram'. If set, a horizontal subplot is drawn above the main plot, visualizing the x-distribution.

  • marginal_y (str) – One of 'rug', 'box', 'violin', or 'histogram'. If set, a vertical subplot is drawn to the right of the main plot, visualizing the y-distribution.

  • trendline (str) – One of 'ols' or 'lowess'. If 'ols', an Ordinary Least Squares regression line will be drawn for each discrete-color/symbol group. If 'lowess’, a Locally Weighted Scatterplot Smoothing line will be drawn for each discrete-color/symbol group.

  • trendline_color_override (str) – Valid CSS color. If provided, and if trendline is set, all trendlines will be drawn in this color.

  • log_x (boolean (default False)) – If True, the x-axis is log-scaled in cartesian coordinates.

  • log_y (boolean (default False)) – If True, the y-axis is log-scaled in cartesian coordinates.

  • range_x (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the x-axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • range_y (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the y-axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • histfunc (str (default 'count' if no arguments are provided, else 'sum')) – One of 'count', 'sum', 'avg', 'min', or 'max'.Function used to aggregate values for summarization (note: can be normalized with histnorm). The arguments to this function are the values of z.

  • histnorm (str (default None)) – One of 'percent', 'probability', 'density', or 'probability density' If None, the output of histfunc is used as is. If 'probability', the output of histfunc for a given bin is divided by the sum of the output of histfunc for all bins. If 'percent', the output of histfunc for a given bin is divided by the sum of the output of histfunc for all bins and multiplied by 100. If 'density', the output of histfunc for a given bin is divided by the size of the bin. If 'probability density', the output of histfunc for a given bin is normalized such that it corresponds to the probability that a random event whose distribution is described by the output of histfunc will fall into that bin.

  • nbinsx (int) – Positive integer. Sets the number of bins along the x axis.

  • nbinsy (int) – Positive integer. Sets the number of bins along the y axis.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

plotly.express.density_heatmap(data_frame=None, x=None, y=None, z=None, facet_row=None, facet_col=None, facet_col_wrap=0, facet_row_spacing=None, facet_col_spacing=None, hover_name=None, hover_data=None, animation_frame=None, animation_group=None, category_orders={}, labels={}, orientation=None, color_continuous_scale=None, range_color=None, color_continuous_midpoint=None, marginal_x=None, marginal_y=None, opacity=None, log_x=False, log_y=False, range_x=None, range_y=None, histfunc=None, histnorm=None, nbinsx=None, nbinsy=None, title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None)

In a density heatmap, rows of data_frame are grouped together into colored rectangular tiles to visualize the 2D distribution of an aggregate function histfunc (e.g. the count or sum) of the value z.

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • x (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the x axis in cartesian coordinates. Either x or y can optionally be a list of column references or array_likes, in which case the data will be treated as if it were ‘wide’ rather than ‘long’.

  • y (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the y axis in cartesian coordinates. Either x or y can optionally be a list of column references or array_likes, in which case the data will be treated as if it were ‘wide’ rather than ‘long’.

  • z (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the z axis in cartesian coordinates. For density_heatmap and density_contour these values are used as the inputs to histfunc.

  • facet_row (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to facetted subplots in the vertical direction.

  • facet_col (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to facetted subplots in the horizontal direction.

  • facet_col_wrap (int) – Maximum number of facet columns. Wraps the column variable at this width, so that the column facets span multiple rows. Ignored if 0, and forced to 0 if facet_row or a marginal is set.

  • facet_row_spacing (float between 0 and 1) – Spacing between facet rows, in paper units. Default is 0.03 or 0.0.7 when facet_col_wrap is used.

  • facet_col_spacing (float between 0 and 1) – Spacing between facet columns, in paper units Default is 0.02.

  • hover_name (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in bold in the hover tooltip.

  • hover_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like, or dict) – Either a list of names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects or a dict with column names as keys, with values True (for default formatting) False (in order to remove this column from hover information), or a formatting string, for example ‘:.3f’ or ‘|%a’ or list-like data to appear in the hover tooltip or tuples with a bool or formatting string as first element, and list-like data to appear in hover as second element Values from these columns appear as extra data in the hover tooltip.

  • animation_frame (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to animation frames.

  • animation_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to provide object-constancy across animation frames: rows with matching `animation_group`s will be treated as if they describe the same object in each frame.

  • category_orders (dict with str keys and list of str values (default {})) – By default, in Python 3.6+, the order of categorical values in axes, legends and facets depends on the order in which these values are first encountered in data_frame (and no order is guaranteed by default in Python below 3.6). This parameter is used to force a specific ordering of values per column. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should be lists of strings corresponding to the specific display order desired.

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • orientation (str, one of 'h' for horizontal or 'v' for vertical.) – (default 'v' if x and y are provided and both continous or both categorical, otherwise 'v'`(‘h’) if `x`(`y) is categorical and y`(`x) is continuous, otherwise 'v'`(‘h’) if only `x`(`y) is provided)

  • color_continuous_scale (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors This list is used to build a continuous color scale when the column denoted by color contains numeric data. Various useful color scales are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.sequential, plotly.express.colors.diverging and plotly.express.colors.cyclical.

  • range_color (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the continuous color scale.

  • color_continuous_midpoint (number (default None)) – If set, computes the bounds of the continuous color scale to have the desired midpoint. Setting this value is recommended when using plotly.express.colors.diverging color scales as the inputs to color_continuous_scale.

  • marginal_x (str) – One of 'rug', 'box', 'violin', or 'histogram'. If set, a horizontal subplot is drawn above the main plot, visualizing the x-distribution.

  • marginal_y (str) – One of 'rug', 'box', 'violin', or 'histogram'. If set, a vertical subplot is drawn to the right of the main plot, visualizing the y-distribution.

  • opacity (float) – Value between 0 and 1. Sets the opacity for markers.

  • log_x (boolean (default False)) – If True, the x-axis is log-scaled in cartesian coordinates.

  • log_y (boolean (default False)) – If True, the y-axis is log-scaled in cartesian coordinates.

  • range_x (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the x-axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • range_y (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the y-axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • histfunc (str (default 'count' if no arguments are provided, else 'sum')) – One of 'count', 'sum', 'avg', 'min', or 'max'.Function used to aggregate values for summarization (note: can be normalized with histnorm). The arguments to this function are the values of z.

  • histnorm (str (default None)) – One of 'percent', 'probability', 'density', or 'probability density' If None, the output of histfunc is used as is. If 'probability', the output of histfunc for a given bin is divided by the sum of the output of histfunc for all bins. If 'percent', the output of histfunc for a given bin is divided by the sum of the output of histfunc for all bins and multiplied by 100. If 'density', the output of histfunc for a given bin is divided by the size of the bin. If 'probability density', the output of histfunc for a given bin is normalized such that it corresponds to the probability that a random event whose distribution is described by the output of histfunc will fall into that bin.

  • nbinsx (int) – Positive integer. Sets the number of bins along the x axis.

  • nbinsy (int) – Positive integer. Sets the number of bins along the y axis.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

plotly.express.density_mapbox(data_frame=None, lat=None, lon=None, z=None, hover_name=None, hover_data=None, custom_data=None, animation_frame=None, animation_group=None, category_orders={}, labels={}, color_continuous_scale=None, range_color=None, color_continuous_midpoint=None, opacity=None, zoom=8, center=None, mapbox_style=None, radius=None, title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None)

In a Mapbox density map, each row of data_frame contributes to the intensity of the color of the region around the corresponding point on the map

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • lat (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks according to latitude on a map.

  • lon (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks according to longitude on a map.

  • z (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the z axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • hover_name (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in bold in the hover tooltip.

  • hover_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like, or dict) – Either a list of names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects or a dict with column names as keys, with values True (for default formatting) False (in order to remove this column from hover information), or a formatting string, for example ‘:.3f’ or ‘|%a’ or list-like data to appear in the hover tooltip or tuples with a bool or formatting string as first element, and list-like data to appear in hover as second element Values from these columns appear as extra data in the hover tooltip.

  • custom_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects Values from these columns are extra data, to be used in widgets or Dash callbacks for example. This data is not user-visible but is included in events emitted by the figure (lasso selection etc.)

  • animation_frame (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to animation frames.

  • animation_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to provide object-constancy across animation frames: rows with matching `animation_group`s will be treated as if they describe the same object in each frame.

  • category_orders (dict with str keys and list of str values (default {})) – By default, in Python 3.6+, the order of categorical values in axes, legends and facets depends on the order in which these values are first encountered in data_frame (and no order is guaranteed by default in Python below 3.6). This parameter is used to force a specific ordering of values per column. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should be lists of strings corresponding to the specific display order desired.

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • color_continuous_scale (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors This list is used to build a continuous color scale when the column denoted by color contains numeric data. Various useful color scales are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.sequential, plotly.express.colors.diverging and plotly.express.colors.cyclical.

  • range_color (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the continuous color scale.

  • color_continuous_midpoint (number (default None)) – If set, computes the bounds of the continuous color scale to have the desired midpoint. Setting this value is recommended when using plotly.express.colors.diverging color scales as the inputs to color_continuous_scale.

  • opacity (float) – Value between 0 and 1. Sets the opacity for markers.

  • zoom (int (default 8)) – Between 0 and 20. Sets map zoom level.

  • center (dict) – Dict keys are 'lat' and 'lon' Sets the center point of the map.

  • mapbox_style (str (default 'basic', needs Mapbox API token)) – Identifier of base map style, some of which require a Mapbox API token to be set using plotly.express.set_mapbox_access_token(). Allowed values which do not require a Mapbox API token are 'open-street-map', 'white-bg', 'carto-positron', 'carto-darkmatter', 'stamen- terrain', 'stamen-toner', 'stamen-watercolor'. Allowed values which do require a Mapbox API token are 'basic', 'streets', 'outdoors', 'light', 'dark', 'satellite', 'satellite- streets'.

  • radius (int (default is 30)) – Sets the radius of influence of each point.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

plotly.express.funnel(data_frame=None, x=None, y=None, color=None, facet_row=None, facet_col=None, facet_col_wrap=0, facet_row_spacing=None, facet_col_spacing=None, hover_name=None, hover_data=None, custom_data=None, text=None, animation_frame=None, animation_group=None, category_orders={}, labels={}, color_discrete_sequence=None, color_discrete_map={}, opacity=None, orientation=None, log_x=False, log_y=False, range_x=None, range_y=None, title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None)

In a funnel plot, each row of data_frame is represented as a rectangular sector of a funnel.

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • x (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the x axis in cartesian coordinates. Either x or y can optionally be a list of column references or array_likes, in which case the data will be treated as if it were ‘wide’ rather than ‘long’.

  • y (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the y axis in cartesian coordinates. Either x or y can optionally be a list of column references or array_likes, in which case the data will be treated as if it were ‘wide’ rather than ‘long’.

  • color (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign color to marks.

  • facet_row (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to facetted subplots in the vertical direction.

  • facet_col (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to facetted subplots in the horizontal direction.

  • facet_col_wrap (int) – Maximum number of facet columns. Wraps the column variable at this width, so that the column facets span multiple rows. Ignored if 0, and forced to 0 if facet_row or a marginal is set.

  • facet_row_spacing (float between 0 and 1) – Spacing between facet rows, in paper units. Default is 0.03 or 0.0.7 when facet_col_wrap is used.

  • facet_col_spacing (float between 0 and 1) – Spacing between facet columns, in paper units Default is 0.02.

  • hover_name (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in bold in the hover tooltip.

  • hover_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like, or dict) – Either a list of names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects or a dict with column names as keys, with values True (for default formatting) False (in order to remove this column from hover information), or a formatting string, for example ‘:.3f’ or ‘|%a’ or list-like data to appear in the hover tooltip or tuples with a bool or formatting string as first element, and list-like data to appear in hover as second element Values from these columns appear as extra data in the hover tooltip.

  • custom_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects Values from these columns are extra data, to be used in widgets or Dash callbacks for example. This data is not user-visible but is included in events emitted by the figure (lasso selection etc.)

  • text (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in the figure as text labels.

  • animation_frame (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to animation frames.

  • animation_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to provide object-constancy across animation frames: rows with matching `animation_group`s will be treated as if they describe the same object in each frame.

  • category_orders (dict with str keys and list of str values (default {})) – By default, in Python 3.6+, the order of categorical values in axes, legends and facets depends on the order in which these values are first encountered in data_frame (and no order is guaranteed by default in Python below 3.6). This parameter is used to force a specific ordering of values per column. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should be lists of strings corresponding to the specific display order desired.

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • color_discrete_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors. When color is set and the values in the corresponding column are not numeric, values in that column are assigned colors by cycling through color_discrete_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of color is a key in color_discrete_map. Various useful color sequences are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.qualitative.

  • color_discrete_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define valid CSS-colors Used to override color_discrete_sequence to assign a specific colors to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in color_discrete_map should be values in the column denoted by color. Alternatively, if the values of color are valid colors, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • opacity (float) – Value between 0 and 1. Sets the opacity for markers.

  • orientation (str, one of 'h' for horizontal or 'v' for vertical.) – (default 'v' if x and y are provided and both continous or both categorical, otherwise 'v'`(‘h’) if `x`(`y) is categorical and y`(`x) is continuous, otherwise 'v'`(‘h’) if only `x`(`y) is provided)

  • log_x (boolean (default False)) – If True, the x-axis is log-scaled in cartesian coordinates.

  • log_y (boolean (default False)) – If True, the y-axis is log-scaled in cartesian coordinates.

  • range_x (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the x-axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • range_y (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the y-axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

plotly.express.funnel_area(data_frame=None, names=None, values=None, color=None, color_discrete_sequence=None, color_discrete_map={}, hover_name=None, hover_data=None, custom_data=None, labels={}, title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None, opacity=None)

In a funnel area plot, each row of data_frame is represented as a trapezoidal sector of a funnel.

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • names (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used as labels for sectors.

  • values (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to set values associated to sectors.

  • color (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign color to marks.

  • color_discrete_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors. When color is set and the values in the corresponding column are not numeric, values in that column are assigned colors by cycling through color_discrete_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of color is a key in color_discrete_map. Various useful color sequences are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.qualitative.

  • color_discrete_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define valid CSS-colors Used to override color_discrete_sequence to assign a specific colors to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in color_discrete_map should be values in the column denoted by color. Alternatively, if the values of color are valid colors, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • hover_name (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in bold in the hover tooltip.

  • hover_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like, or dict) – Either a list of names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects or a dict with column names as keys, with values True (for default formatting) False (in order to remove this column from hover information), or a formatting string, for example ‘:.3f’ or ‘|%a’ or list-like data to appear in the hover tooltip or tuples with a bool or formatting string as first element, and list-like data to appear in hover as second element Values from these columns appear as extra data in the hover tooltip.

  • custom_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects Values from these columns are extra data, to be used in widgets or Dash callbacks for example. This data is not user-visible but is included in events emitted by the figure (lasso selection etc.)

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

  • opacity (float) – Value between 0 and 1. Sets the opacity for markers.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

plotly.express.get_trendline_results(fig)

Extracts fit statistics for trendlines (when applied to figures generated with the trendline argument set to "ols").

Parameters

fig – the output of a plotly.express charting call

Returns

A pandas.DataFrame with a column “px_fit_results” containing the statsmodels results objects, along with columns identifying the subset of the data the trendline was fit on.

plotly.express.histogram(data_frame=None, x=None, y=None, color=None, facet_row=None, facet_col=None, facet_col_wrap=0, facet_row_spacing=None, facet_col_spacing=None, hover_name=None, hover_data=None, animation_frame=None, animation_group=None, category_orders={}, labels={}, color_discrete_sequence=None, color_discrete_map={}, marginal=None, opacity=None, orientation=None, barmode='relative', barnorm=None, histnorm=None, log_x=False, log_y=False, range_x=None, range_y=None, histfunc=None, cumulative=None, nbins=None, title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None)

In a histogram, rows of data_frame are grouped together into a rectangular mark to visualize the 1D distribution of an aggregate function histfunc (e.g. the count or sum) of the value y (or x if orientation is 'h').

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • x (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the x axis in cartesian coordinates. If orientation is 'h', these values are used as inputs to histfunc. Either x or y can optionally be a list of column references or array_likes, in which case the data will be treated as if it were ‘wide’ rather than ‘long’.

  • y (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the y axis in cartesian coordinates. If orientation is 'v', these values are used as inputs to histfunc. Either x or y can optionally be a list of column references or array_likes, in which case the data will be treated as if it were ‘wide’ rather than ‘long’.

  • color (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign color to marks.

  • facet_row (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to facetted subplots in the vertical direction.

  • facet_col (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to facetted subplots in the horizontal direction.

  • facet_col_wrap (int) – Maximum number of facet columns. Wraps the column variable at this width, so that the column facets span multiple rows. Ignored if 0, and forced to 0 if facet_row or a marginal is set.

  • facet_row_spacing (float between 0 and 1) – Spacing between facet rows, in paper units. Default is 0.03 or 0.0.7 when facet_col_wrap is used.

  • facet_col_spacing (float between 0 and 1) – Spacing between facet columns, in paper units Default is 0.02.

  • hover_name (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in bold in the hover tooltip.

  • hover_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like, or dict) – Either a list of names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects or a dict with column names as keys, with values True (for default formatting) False (in order to remove this column from hover information), or a formatting string, for example ‘:.3f’ or ‘|%a’ or list-like data to appear in the hover tooltip or tuples with a bool or formatting string as first element, and list-like data to appear in hover as second element Values from these columns appear as extra data in the hover tooltip.

  • animation_frame (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to animation frames.

  • animation_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to provide object-constancy across animation frames: rows with matching `animation_group`s will be treated as if they describe the same object in each frame.

  • category_orders (dict with str keys and list of str values (default {})) – By default, in Python 3.6+, the order of categorical values in axes, legends and facets depends on the order in which these values are first encountered in data_frame (and no order is guaranteed by default in Python below 3.6). This parameter is used to force a specific ordering of values per column. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should be lists of strings corresponding to the specific display order desired.

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • color_discrete_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors. When color is set and the values in the corresponding column are not numeric, values in that column are assigned colors by cycling through color_discrete_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of color is a key in color_discrete_map. Various useful color sequences are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.qualitative.

  • color_discrete_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define valid CSS-colors Used to override color_discrete_sequence to assign a specific colors to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in color_discrete_map should be values in the column denoted by color. Alternatively, if the values of color are valid colors, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • marginal (str) – One of 'rug', 'box', 'violin', or 'histogram'. If set, a subplot is drawn alongside the main plot, visualizing the distribution.

  • opacity (float) – Value between 0 and 1. Sets the opacity for markers.

  • orientation (str, one of 'h' for horizontal or 'v' for vertical.) – (default 'v' if x and y are provided and both continous or both categorical, otherwise 'v'`(‘h’) if `x`(`y) is categorical and y`(`x) is continuous, otherwise 'v'`(‘h’) if only `x`(`y) is provided)

  • barmode (str (default 'relative')) – One of 'group', 'overlay' or 'relative' In 'relative' mode, bars are stacked above zero for positive values and below zero for negative values. In 'overlay' mode, bars are drawn on top of one another. In 'group' mode, bars are placed beside each other.

  • barnorm (str (default None)) – One of 'fraction' or 'percent'. If 'fraction', the value of each bar is divided by the sum of all values at that location coordinate. 'percent' is the same but multiplied by 100 to show percentages. None will stack up all values at each location coordinate.

  • histnorm (str (default None)) – One of 'percent', 'probability', 'density', or 'probability density' If None, the output of histfunc is used as is. If 'probability', the output of histfunc for a given bin is divided by the sum of the output of histfunc for all bins. If 'percent', the output of histfunc for a given bin is divided by the sum of the output of histfunc for all bins and multiplied by 100. If 'density', the output of histfunc for a given bin is divided by the size of the bin. If 'probability density', the output of histfunc for a given bin is normalized such that it corresponds to the probability that a random event whose distribution is described by the output of histfunc will fall into that bin.

  • log_x (boolean (default False)) – If True, the x-axis is log-scaled in cartesian coordinates.

  • log_y (boolean (default False)) – If True, the y-axis is log-scaled in cartesian coordinates.

  • range_x (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the x-axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • range_y (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the y-axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • histfunc (str (default 'count' if no arguments are provided, else 'sum')) – One of 'count', 'sum', 'avg', 'min', or 'max'.Function used to aggregate values for summarization (note: can be normalized with histnorm). The arguments to this function are the values of y`(`x) if orientation is 'v'`(‘h’`).

  • cumulative (boolean (default False)) – If True, histogram values are cumulative.

  • nbins (int) – Positive integer. Sets the number of bins.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

plotly.express.imshow(img, zmin=None, zmax=None, origin=None, labels={}, x=None, y=None, color_continuous_scale=None, color_continuous_midpoint=None, range_color=None, title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None, aspect=None, contrast_rescaling=None, binary_string=None, binary_backend='auto', binary_compression_level=4, binary_format='png')

Display an image, i.e. data on a 2D regular raster.

Parameters
  • img (array-like image, or xarray) –

    The image data. Supported array shapes are

    • (M, N): an image with scalar data. The data is visualized using a colormap.

    • (M, N, 3): an image with RGB values.

    • (M, N, 4): an image with RGBA values, i.e. including transparency.

  • zmax (zmin,) – zmin and zmax define the scalar range that the colormap covers. By default, zmin and zmax correspond to the min and max values of the datatype for integer datatypes (ie [0-255] for uint8 images, [0, 65535] for uint16 images, etc.). For a multichannel image of floats, the max of the image is computed and zmax is the smallest power of 256 (1, 255, 65535) greater than this max value, with a 5% tolerance. For a single-channel image, the max of the image is used. Overridden by range_color.

  • origin (str, 'upper' or 'lower' (default 'upper')) – position of the [0, 0] pixel of the image array, in the upper left or lower left corner. The convention ‘upper’ is typically used for matrices and images.

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – Sets names used in the figure for axis titles (keys x and y), colorbar title and hoverlabel (key color). The values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed. If img is an xarray, dimension names are used for axis titles, and long name for the colorbar title (unless overridden in labels). Possible keys are: x, y, and color.

  • y (x,) – x and y are used to label the axes of single-channel heatmap visualizations and their lengths must match the lengths of the second and first dimensions of the img argument. They are auto-populated if the input is an xarray.

  • color_continuous_scale (str or list of str) – colormap used to map scalar data to colors (for a 2D image). This parameter is not used for RGB or RGBA images. If a string is provided, it should be the name of a known color scale, and if a list is provided, it should be a list of CSS- compatible colors.

  • color_continuous_midpoint (number) – If set, computes the bounds of the continuous color scale to have the desired midpoint. Overridden by range_color or zmin and zmax.

  • range_color (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the continuous color scale, including overriding color_continuous_midpoint. Also overrides zmin and zmax. Used only for single-channel images.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name or definition.

  • width (number) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (number) – The figure height in pixels.

  • aspect ('equal', 'auto', or None) –

    • ‘equal’: Ensures an aspect ratio of 1 or pixels (square pixels)

    • ’auto’: The axes is kept fixed and the aspect ratio of pixels is adjusted so that the data fit in the axes. In general, this will result in non-square pixels.

    • if None, ‘equal’ is used for numpy arrays and ‘auto’ for xarrays (which have typically heterogeneous coordinates)

  • contrast_rescaling ('minmax', 'infer', or None) – how to determine data values corresponding to the bounds of the color range, when zmin or zmax are not passed. If minmax, the min and max values of the image are used. If infer, a heuristic based on the image data type is used.

  • binary_string (bool, default None) – if True, the image data are first rescaled and encoded as uint8 and then passed to plotly.js as a b64 PNG string. If False, data are passed unchanged as a numerical array. Setting to True may lead to performance gains, at the cost of a loss of precision depending on the original data type. If None, use_binary_string is set to True for multichannel (eg) RGB arrays, and to False for single-channel (2D) arrays. 2D arrays are represented as grayscale and with no colorbar if use_binary_string is True.

  • binary_backend (str, 'auto' (default), 'pil' or 'pypng') – Third-party package for the transformation of numpy arrays to png b64 strings. If ‘auto’, Pillow is used if installed, otherwise pypng.

  • binary_compression_level (int, between 0 and 9 (default 4)) – png compression level to be passed to the backend when transforming an array to a png b64 string. Increasing binary_compression decreases the size of the png string, but the compression step takes more time. For most images it is not worth using levels greater than 5, but it’s possible to test len(fig.data[0].source) and to time the execution of imshow to tune the level of compression. 0 means no compression (not recommended).

  • binary_format (str, 'png' (default) or 'jpg') – compression format used to generate b64 string. ‘png’ is recommended since it uses lossless compression, but ‘jpg’ (lossy) compression can result if smaller binary strings for natural images.

Returns

fig

Return type

graph_objects.Figure containing the displayed image

Notes

In order to update and customize the returned figure, use go.Figure.update_traces or go.Figure.update_layout.

If an xarray is passed, dimensions names and coordinates are used for axes labels and ticks.

plotly.express.line(data_frame=None, x=None, y=None, line_group=None, color=None, line_dash=None, hover_name=None, hover_data=None, custom_data=None, text=None, facet_row=None, facet_col=None, facet_col_wrap=0, facet_row_spacing=None, facet_col_spacing=None, error_x=None, error_x_minus=None, error_y=None, error_y_minus=None, animation_frame=None, animation_group=None, category_orders={}, labels={}, orientation=None, color_discrete_sequence=None, color_discrete_map={}, line_dash_sequence=None, line_dash_map={}, log_x=False, log_y=False, range_x=None, range_y=None, line_shape=None, render_mode='auto', title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None)

In a 2D line plot, each row of data_frame is represented as vertex of a polyline mark in 2D space.

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • x (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the x axis in cartesian coordinates. Either x or y can optionally be a list of column references or array_likes, in which case the data will be treated as if it were ‘wide’ rather than ‘long’.

  • y (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the y axis in cartesian coordinates. Either x or y can optionally be a list of column references or array_likes, in which case the data will be treated as if it were ‘wide’ rather than ‘long’.

  • line_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to group rows of data_frame into lines.

  • color (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign color to marks.

  • line_dash (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign dash-patterns to lines.

  • hover_name (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in bold in the hover tooltip.

  • hover_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like, or dict) – Either a list of names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects or a dict with column names as keys, with values True (for default formatting) False (in order to remove this column from hover information), or a formatting string, for example ‘:.3f’ or ‘|%a’ or list-like data to appear in the hover tooltip or tuples with a bool or formatting string as first element, and list-like data to appear in hover as second element Values from these columns appear as extra data in the hover tooltip.

  • custom_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects Values from these columns are extra data, to be used in widgets or Dash callbacks for example. This data is not user-visible but is included in events emitted by the figure (lasso selection etc.)

  • text (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in the figure as text labels.

  • facet_row (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to facetted subplots in the vertical direction.

  • facet_col (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to facetted subplots in the horizontal direction.

  • facet_col_wrap (int) – Maximum number of facet columns. Wraps the column variable at this width, so that the column facets span multiple rows. Ignored if 0, and forced to 0 if facet_row or a marginal is set.

  • facet_row_spacing (float between 0 and 1) – Spacing between facet rows, in paper units. Default is 0.03 or 0.0.7 when facet_col_wrap is used.

  • facet_col_spacing (float between 0 and 1) – Spacing between facet columns, in paper units Default is 0.02.

  • error_x (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to size x-axis error bars. If error_x_minus is None, error bars will be symmetrical, otherwise error_x is used for the positive direction only.

  • error_x_minus (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to size x-axis error bars in the negative direction. Ignored if error_x is None.

  • error_y (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to size y-axis error bars. If error_y_minus is None, error bars will be symmetrical, otherwise error_y is used for the positive direction only.

  • error_y_minus (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to size y-axis error bars in the negative direction. Ignored if error_y is None.

  • animation_frame (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to animation frames.

  • animation_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to provide object-constancy across animation frames: rows with matching `animation_group`s will be treated as if they describe the same object in each frame.

  • category_orders (dict with str keys and list of str values (default {})) – By default, in Python 3.6+, the order of categorical values in axes, legends and facets depends on the order in which these values are first encountered in data_frame (and no order is guaranteed by default in Python below 3.6). This parameter is used to force a specific ordering of values per column. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should be lists of strings corresponding to the specific display order desired.

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • orientation (str, one of 'h' for horizontal or 'v' for vertical.) – (default 'v' if x and y are provided and both continous or both categorical, otherwise 'v'`(‘h’) if `x`(`y) is categorical and y`(`x) is continuous, otherwise 'v'`(‘h’) if only `x`(`y) is provided)

  • color_discrete_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors. When color is set and the values in the corresponding column are not numeric, values in that column are assigned colors by cycling through color_discrete_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of color is a key in color_discrete_map. Various useful color sequences are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.qualitative.

  • color_discrete_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define valid CSS-colors Used to override color_discrete_sequence to assign a specific colors to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in color_discrete_map should be values in the column denoted by color. Alternatively, if the values of color are valid colors, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • line_dash_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid plotly.js dash-patterns. When line_dash is set, values in that column are assigned dash-patterns by cycling through line_dash_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of line_dash is a key in line_dash_map.

  • line_dash_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – Strings values define plotly.js dash-patterns. Used to override line_dash_sequences to assign a specific dash-patterns to lines corresponding with specific values. Keys in line_dash_map should be values in the column denoted by line_dash. Alternatively, if the values of line_dash are valid line-dash names, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • log_x (boolean (default False)) – If True, the x-axis is log-scaled in cartesian coordinates.

  • log_y (boolean (default False)) – If True, the y-axis is log-scaled in cartesian coordinates.

  • range_x (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the x-axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • range_y (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the y-axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • line_shape (str (default 'linear')) – One of 'linear' or 'spline'.

  • render_mode (str) – One of 'auto', 'svg' or 'webgl', default 'auto' Controls the browser API used to draw marks. 'svg’ is appropriate for figures of less than 1000 data points, and will allow for fully-vectorized output. 'webgl' is likely necessary for acceptable performance above 1000 points but rasterizes part of the output. 'auto' uses heuristics to choose the mode.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

plotly.express.line_3d(data_frame=None, x=None, y=None, z=None, color=None, line_dash=None, text=None, line_group=None, hover_name=None, hover_data=None, custom_data=None, error_x=None, error_x_minus=None, error_y=None, error_y_minus=None, error_z=None, error_z_minus=None, animation_frame=None, animation_group=None, category_orders={}, labels={}, color_discrete_sequence=None, color_discrete_map={}, line_dash_sequence=None, line_dash_map={}, log_x=False, log_y=False, log_z=False, range_x=None, range_y=None, range_z=None, title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None)

In a 3D line plot, each row of data_frame is represented as vertex of a polyline mark in 3D space.

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • x (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the x axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • y (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the y axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • z (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the z axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • color (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign color to marks.

  • line_dash (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign dash-patterns to lines.

  • text (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in the figure as text labels.

  • line_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to group rows of data_frame into lines.

  • hover_name (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in bold in the hover tooltip.

  • hover_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like, or dict) – Either a list of names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects or a dict with column names as keys, with values True (for default formatting) False (in order to remove this column from hover information), or a formatting string, for example ‘:.3f’ or ‘|%a’ or list-like data to appear in the hover tooltip or tuples with a bool or formatting string as first element, and list-like data to appear in hover as second element Values from these columns appear as extra data in the hover tooltip.

  • custom_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects Values from these columns are extra data, to be used in widgets or Dash callbacks for example. This data is not user-visible but is included in events emitted by the figure (lasso selection etc.)

  • error_x (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to size x-axis error bars. If error_x_minus is None, error bars will be symmetrical, otherwise error_x is used for the positive direction only.

  • error_x_minus (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to size x-axis error bars in the negative direction. Ignored if error_x is None.

  • error_y (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to size y-axis error bars. If error_y_minus is None, error bars will be symmetrical, otherwise error_y is used for the positive direction only.

  • error_y_minus (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to size y-axis error bars in the negative direction. Ignored if error_y is None.

  • error_z (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to size z-axis error bars. If error_z_minus is None, error bars will be symmetrical, otherwise error_z is used for the positive direction only.

  • error_z_minus (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to size z-axis error bars in the negative direction. Ignored if error_z is None.

  • animation_frame (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to animation frames.

  • animation_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to provide object-constancy across animation frames: rows with matching `animation_group`s will be treated as if they describe the same object in each frame.

  • category_orders (dict with str keys and list of str values (default {})) – By default, in Python 3.6+, the order of categorical values in axes, legends and facets depends on the order in which these values are first encountered in data_frame (and no order is guaranteed by default in Python below 3.6). This parameter is used to force a specific ordering of values per column. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should be lists of strings corresponding to the specific display order desired.

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • color_discrete_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors. When color is set and the values in the corresponding column are not numeric, values in that column are assigned colors by cycling through color_discrete_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of color is a key in color_discrete_map. Various useful color sequences are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.qualitative.

  • color_discrete_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define valid CSS-colors Used to override color_discrete_sequence to assign a specific colors to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in color_discrete_map should be values in the column denoted by color. Alternatively, if the values of color are valid colors, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • line_dash_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid plotly.js dash-patterns. When line_dash is set, values in that column are assigned dash-patterns by cycling through line_dash_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of line_dash is a key in line_dash_map.

  • line_dash_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – Strings values define plotly.js dash-patterns. Used to override line_dash_sequences to assign a specific dash-patterns to lines corresponding with specific values. Keys in line_dash_map should be values in the column denoted by line_dash. Alternatively, if the values of line_dash are valid line-dash names, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • log_x (boolean (default False)) – If True, the x-axis is log-scaled in cartesian coordinates.

  • log_y (boolean (default False)) – If True, the y-axis is log-scaled in cartesian coordinates.

  • log_z (boolean (default False)) – If True, the z-axis is log-scaled in cartesian coordinates.

  • range_x (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the x-axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • range_y (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the y-axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • range_z (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the z-axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

plotly.express.line_geo(data_frame=None, lat=None, lon=None, locations=None, locationmode=None, color=None, line_dash=None, text=None, hover_name=None, hover_data=None, custom_data=None, line_group=None, animation_frame=None, animation_group=None, category_orders={}, labels={}, color_discrete_sequence=None, color_discrete_map={}, line_dash_sequence=None, line_dash_map={}, projection=None, scope=None, center=None, title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None)

In a geographic line plot, each row of data_frame is represented as vertex of a polyline mark on a map.

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • lat (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks according to latitude on a map.

  • lon (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks according to longitude on a map.

  • locations (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are to be interpreted according to locationmode and mapped to longitude/latitude.

  • locationmode (str) – One of ‘ISO-3’, ‘USA-states’, or ‘country names’ Determines the set of locations used to match entries in locations to regions on the map.

  • color (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign color to marks.

  • line_dash (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign dash-patterns to lines.

  • text (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in the figure as text labels.

  • hover_name (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in bold in the hover tooltip.

  • hover_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like, or dict) – Either a list of names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects or a dict with column names as keys, with values True (for default formatting) False (in order to remove this column from hover information), or a formatting string, for example ‘:.3f’ or ‘|%a’ or list-like data to appear in the hover tooltip or tuples with a bool or formatting string as first element, and list-like data to appear in hover as second element Values from these columns appear as extra data in the hover tooltip.

  • custom_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects Values from these columns are extra data, to be used in widgets or Dash callbacks for example. This data is not user-visible but is included in events emitted by the figure (lasso selection etc.)

  • line_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to group rows of data_frame into lines.

  • animation_frame (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to animation frames.

  • animation_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to provide object-constancy across animation frames: rows with matching `animation_group`s will be treated as if they describe the same object in each frame.

  • category_orders (dict with str keys and list of str values (default {})) – By default, in Python 3.6+, the order of categorical values in axes, legends and facets depends on the order in which these values are first encountered in data_frame (and no order is guaranteed by default in Python below 3.6). This parameter is used to force a specific ordering of values per column. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should be lists of strings corresponding to the specific display order desired.

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • color_discrete_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors. When color is set and the values in the corresponding column are not numeric, values in that column are assigned colors by cycling through color_discrete_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of color is a key in color_discrete_map. Various useful color sequences are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.qualitative.

  • color_discrete_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define valid CSS-colors Used to override color_discrete_sequence to assign a specific colors to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in color_discrete_map should be values in the column denoted by color. Alternatively, if the values of color are valid colors, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • line_dash_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid plotly.js dash-patterns. When line_dash is set, values in that column are assigned dash-patterns by cycling through line_dash_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of line_dash is a key in line_dash_map.

  • line_dash_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – Strings values define plotly.js dash-patterns. Used to override line_dash_sequences to assign a specific dash-patterns to lines corresponding with specific values. Keys in line_dash_map should be values in the column denoted by line_dash. Alternatively, if the values of line_dash are valid line-dash names, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • projection (str) – One of 'equirectangular', 'mercator', 'orthographic', 'natural earth', 'kavrayskiy7', 'miller', 'robinson', 'eckert4', 'azimuthal equal area', 'azimuthal equidistant', 'conic equal area', 'conic conformal', 'conic equidistant', 'gnomonic', 'stereographic', 'mollweide', 'hammer', 'transverse mercator', 'albers usa', 'winkel tripel', 'aitoff', or 'sinusoidal'`Default depends on `scope.

  • scope (str (default 'world').) – One of 'world', 'usa', 'europe', 'asia', 'africa', 'north america', or 'south america')Default is 'world' unless projection is set to 'albers usa', which forces 'usa'.

  • center (dict) – Dict keys are 'lat' and 'lon' Sets the center point of the map.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

plotly.express.line_mapbox(data_frame=None, lat=None, lon=None, color=None, text=None, hover_name=None, hover_data=None, custom_data=None, line_group=None, animation_frame=None, animation_group=None, category_orders={}, labels={}, color_discrete_sequence=None, color_discrete_map={}, zoom=8, center=None, mapbox_style=None, title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None)

In a Mapbox line plot, each row of data_frame is represented as vertex of a polyline mark on a Mapbox map.

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • lat (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks according to latitude on a map.

  • lon (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks according to longitude on a map.

  • color (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign color to marks.

  • text (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in the figure as text labels.

  • hover_name (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in bold in the hover tooltip.

  • hover_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like, or dict) – Either a list of names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects or a dict with column names as keys, with values True (for default formatting) False (in order to remove this column from hover information), or a formatting string, for example ‘:.3f’ or ‘|%a’ or list-like data to appear in the hover tooltip or tuples with a bool or formatting string as first element, and list-like data to appear in hover as second element Values from these columns appear as extra data in the hover tooltip.

  • custom_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects Values from these columns are extra data, to be used in widgets or Dash callbacks for example. This data is not user-visible but is included in events emitted by the figure (lasso selection etc.)

  • line_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to group rows of data_frame into lines.

  • animation_frame (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to animation frames.

  • animation_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to provide object-constancy across animation frames: rows with matching `animation_group`s will be treated as if they describe the same object in each frame.

  • category_orders (dict with str keys and list of str values (default {})) – By default, in Python 3.6+, the order of categorical values in axes, legends and facets depends on the order in which these values are first encountered in data_frame (and no order is guaranteed by default in Python below 3.6). This parameter is used to force a specific ordering of values per column. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should be lists of strings corresponding to the specific display order desired.

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • color_discrete_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors. When color is set and the values in the corresponding column are not numeric, values in that column are assigned colors by cycling through color_discrete_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of color is a key in color_discrete_map. Various useful color sequences are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.qualitative.

  • color_discrete_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define valid CSS-colors Used to override color_discrete_sequence to assign a specific colors to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in color_discrete_map should be values in the column denoted by color. Alternatively, if the values of color are valid colors, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • zoom (int (default 8)) – Between 0 and 20. Sets map zoom level.

  • center (dict) – Dict keys are 'lat' and 'lon' Sets the center point of the map.

  • mapbox_style (str (default 'basic', needs Mapbox API token)) – Identifier of base map style, some of which require a Mapbox API token to be set using plotly.express.set_mapbox_access_token(). Allowed values which do not require a Mapbox API token are 'open-street-map', 'white-bg', 'carto-positron', 'carto-darkmatter', 'stamen- terrain', 'stamen-toner', 'stamen-watercolor'. Allowed values which do require a Mapbox API token are 'basic', 'streets', 'outdoors', 'light', 'dark', 'satellite', 'satellite- streets'.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

plotly.express.line_polar(data_frame=None, r=None, theta=None, color=None, line_dash=None, hover_name=None, hover_data=None, custom_data=None, line_group=None, text=None, animation_frame=None, animation_group=None, category_orders={}, labels={}, color_discrete_sequence=None, color_discrete_map={}, line_dash_sequence=None, line_dash_map={}, direction='clockwise', start_angle=90, line_close=False, line_shape=None, render_mode='auto', range_r=None, range_theta=None, log_r=False, title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None)

In a polar line plot, each row of data_frame is represented as vertex of a polyline mark in polar coordinates.

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • r (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the radial axis in polar coordinates.

  • theta (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the angular axis in polar coordinates.

  • color (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign color to marks.

  • line_dash (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign dash-patterns to lines.

  • hover_name (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in bold in the hover tooltip.

  • hover_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like, or dict) – Either a list of names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects or a dict with column names as keys, with values True (for default formatting) False (in order to remove this column from hover information), or a formatting string, for example ‘:.3f’ or ‘|%a’ or list-like data to appear in the hover tooltip or tuples with a bool or formatting string as first element, and list-like data to appear in hover as second element Values from these columns appear as extra data in the hover tooltip.

  • custom_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects Values from these columns are extra data, to be used in widgets or Dash callbacks for example. This data is not user-visible but is included in events emitted by the figure (lasso selection etc.)

  • line_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to group rows of data_frame into lines.

  • text (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in the figure as text labels.

  • animation_frame (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to animation frames.

  • animation_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to provide object-constancy across animation frames: rows with matching `animation_group`s will be treated as if they describe the same object in each frame.

  • category_orders (dict with str keys and list of str values (default {})) – By default, in Python 3.6+, the order of categorical values in axes, legends and facets depends on the order in which these values are first encountered in data_frame (and no order is guaranteed by default in Python below 3.6). This parameter is used to force a specific ordering of values per column. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should be lists of strings corresponding to the specific display order desired.

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • color_discrete_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors. When color is set and the values in the corresponding column are not numeric, values in that column are assigned colors by cycling through color_discrete_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of color is a key in color_discrete_map. Various useful color sequences are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.qualitative.

  • color_discrete_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define valid CSS-colors Used to override color_discrete_sequence to assign a specific colors to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in color_discrete_map should be values in the column denoted by color. Alternatively, if the values of color are valid colors, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • line_dash_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid plotly.js dash-patterns. When line_dash is set, values in that column are assigned dash-patterns by cycling through line_dash_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of line_dash is a key in line_dash_map.

  • line_dash_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – Strings values define plotly.js dash-patterns. Used to override line_dash_sequences to assign a specific dash-patterns to lines corresponding with specific values. Keys in line_dash_map should be values in the column denoted by line_dash. Alternatively, if the values of line_dash are valid line-dash names, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • direction (str) – One of ‘counterclockwise' or 'clockwise'. Default is 'clockwise' Sets the direction in which increasing values of the angular axis are drawn.

  • start_angle (int (default 90)) – Sets start angle for the angular axis, with 0 being due east and 90 being due north.

  • line_close (boolean (default False)) – If True, an extra line segment is drawn between the first and last point.

  • line_shape (str (default 'linear')) – One of 'linear' or 'spline'.

  • render_mode (str) – One of 'auto', 'svg' or 'webgl', default 'auto' Controls the browser API used to draw marks. 'svg’ is appropriate for figures of less than 1000 data points, and will allow for fully-vectorized output. 'webgl' is likely necessary for acceptable performance above 1000 points but rasterizes part of the output. 'auto' uses heuristics to choose the mode.

  • range_r (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the radial axis in polar coordinates.

  • range_theta (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the angular axis in polar coordinates.

  • log_r (boolean (default False)) – If True, the radial axis is log-scaled in polar coordinates.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

plotly.express.line_ternary(data_frame=None, a=None, b=None, c=None, color=None, line_dash=None, line_group=None, hover_name=None, hover_data=None, custom_data=None, text=None, animation_frame=None, animation_group=None, category_orders={}, labels={}, color_discrete_sequence=None, color_discrete_map={}, line_dash_sequence=None, line_dash_map={}, line_shape=None, title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None)

In a ternary line plot, each row of data_frame is represented as vertex of a polyline mark in ternary coordinates.

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • a (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the a axis in ternary coordinates.

  • b (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the b axis in ternary coordinates.

  • c (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the c axis in ternary coordinates.

  • color (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign color to marks.

  • line_dash (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign dash-patterns to lines.

  • line_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to group rows of data_frame into lines.

  • hover_name (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in bold in the hover tooltip.

  • hover_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like, or dict) – Either a list of names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects or a dict with column names as keys, with values True (for default formatting) False (in order to remove this column from hover information), or a formatting string, for example ‘:.3f’ or ‘|%a’ or list-like data to appear in the hover tooltip or tuples with a bool or formatting string as first element, and list-like data to appear in hover as second element Values from these columns appear as extra data in the hover tooltip.

  • custom_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects Values from these columns are extra data, to be used in widgets or Dash callbacks for example. This data is not user-visible but is included in events emitted by the figure (lasso selection etc.)

  • text (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in the figure as text labels.

  • animation_frame (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to animation frames.

  • animation_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to provide object-constancy across animation frames: rows with matching `animation_group`s will be treated as if they describe the same object in each frame.

  • category_orders (dict with str keys and list of str values (default {})) – By default, in Python 3.6+, the order of categorical values in axes, legends and facets depends on the order in which these values are first encountered in data_frame (and no order is guaranteed by default in Python below 3.6). This parameter is used to force a specific ordering of values per column. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should be lists of strings corresponding to the specific display order desired.

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • color_discrete_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors. When color is set and the values in the corresponding column are not numeric, values in that column are assigned colors by cycling through color_discrete_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of color is a key in color_discrete_map. Various useful color sequences are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.qualitative.

  • color_discrete_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define valid CSS-colors Used to override color_discrete_sequence to assign a specific colors to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in color_discrete_map should be values in the column denoted by color. Alternatively, if the values of color are valid colors, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • line_dash_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid plotly.js dash-patterns. When line_dash is set, values in that column are assigned dash-patterns by cycling through line_dash_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of line_dash is a key in line_dash_map.

  • line_dash_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – Strings values define plotly.js dash-patterns. Used to override line_dash_sequences to assign a specific dash-patterns to lines corresponding with specific values. Keys in line_dash_map should be values in the column denoted by line_dash. Alternatively, if the values of line_dash are valid line-dash names, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • line_shape (str (default 'linear')) – One of 'linear' or 'spline'.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

plotly.express.parallel_categories(data_frame=None, dimensions=None, color=None, labels={}, color_continuous_scale=None, range_color=None, color_continuous_midpoint=None, title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None, dimensions_max_cardinality=50)

In a parallel categories (or parallel sets) plot, each row of data_frame is grouped with other rows that share the same values of dimensions and then plotted as a polyline mark through a set of parallel axes, one for each of the dimensions.

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • dimensions (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects Values from these columns are used for multidimensional visualization.

  • color (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign color to marks.

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • color_continuous_scale (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors This list is used to build a continuous color scale when the column denoted by color contains numeric data. Various useful color scales are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.sequential, plotly.express.colors.diverging and plotly.express.colors.cyclical.

  • range_color (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the continuous color scale.

  • color_continuous_midpoint (number (default None)) – If set, computes the bounds of the continuous color scale to have the desired midpoint. Setting this value is recommended when using plotly.express.colors.diverging color scales as the inputs to color_continuous_scale.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

  • dimensions_max_cardinality (int (default 50)) – When dimensions is None and data_frame is provided, columns with more than this number of unique values are excluded from the output. Not used when dimensions is passed.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

plotly.express.parallel_coordinates(data_frame=None, dimensions=None, color=None, labels={}, color_continuous_scale=None, range_color=None, color_continuous_midpoint=None, title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None)

In a parallel coordinates plot, each row of data_frame is represented by a polyline mark which traverses a set of parallel axes, one for each of the dimensions.

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • dimensions (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects Values from these columns are used for multidimensional visualization.

  • color (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign color to marks.

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • color_continuous_scale (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors This list is used to build a continuous color scale when the column denoted by color contains numeric data. Various useful color scales are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.sequential, plotly.express.colors.diverging and plotly.express.colors.cyclical.

  • range_color (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the continuous color scale.

  • color_continuous_midpoint (number (default None)) – If set, computes the bounds of the continuous color scale to have the desired midpoint. Setting this value is recommended when using plotly.express.colors.diverging color scales as the inputs to color_continuous_scale.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

plotly.express.pie(data_frame=None, names=None, values=None, color=None, color_discrete_sequence=None, color_discrete_map={}, hover_name=None, hover_data=None, custom_data=None, labels={}, title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None, opacity=None, hole=None)

In a pie plot, each row of data_frame is represented as a sector of a pie.

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • names (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used as labels for sectors.

  • values (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to set values associated to sectors.

  • color (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign color to marks.

  • color_discrete_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors. When color is set and the values in the corresponding column are not numeric, values in that column are assigned colors by cycling through color_discrete_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of color is a key in color_discrete_map. Various useful color sequences are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.qualitative.

  • color_discrete_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define valid CSS-colors Used to override color_discrete_sequence to assign a specific colors to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in color_discrete_map should be values in the column denoted by color. Alternatively, if the values of color are valid colors, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • hover_name (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in bold in the hover tooltip.

  • hover_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like, or dict) – Either a list of names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects or a dict with column names as keys, with values True (for default formatting) False (in order to remove this column from hover information), or a formatting string, for example ‘:.3f’ or ‘|%a’ or list-like data to appear in the hover tooltip or tuples with a bool or formatting string as first element, and list-like data to appear in hover as second element Values from these columns appear as extra data in the hover tooltip.

  • custom_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects Values from these columns are extra data, to be used in widgets or Dash callbacks for example. This data is not user-visible but is included in events emitted by the figure (lasso selection etc.)

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

  • opacity (float) – Value between 0 and 1. Sets the opacity for markers.

  • hole (float) – Sets the fraction of the radius to cut out of the pie.Use this to make a donut chart.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

plotly.express.scatter(data_frame=None, x=None, y=None, color=None, symbol=None, size=None, hover_name=None, hover_data=None, custom_data=None, text=None, facet_row=None, facet_col=None, facet_col_wrap=0, facet_row_spacing=None, facet_col_spacing=None, error_x=None, error_x_minus=None, error_y=None, error_y_minus=None, animation_frame=None, animation_group=None, category_orders={}, labels={}, orientation=None, color_discrete_sequence=None, color_discrete_map={}, color_continuous_scale=None, range_color=None, color_continuous_midpoint=None, symbol_sequence=None, symbol_map={}, opacity=None, size_max=None, marginal_x=None, marginal_y=None, trendline=None, trendline_color_override=None, log_x=False, log_y=False, range_x=None, range_y=None, render_mode='auto', title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None)

In a scatter plot, each row of data_frame is represented by a symbol mark in 2D space.

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • x (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the x axis in cartesian coordinates. Either x or y can optionally be a list of column references or array_likes, in which case the data will be treated as if it were ‘wide’ rather than ‘long’.

  • y (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the y axis in cartesian coordinates. Either x or y can optionally be a list of column references or array_likes, in which case the data will be treated as if it were ‘wide’ rather than ‘long’.

  • color (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign color to marks.

  • symbol (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign symbols to marks.

  • size (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign mark sizes.

  • hover_name (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in bold in the hover tooltip.

  • hover_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like, or dict) – Either a list of names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects or a dict with column names as keys, with values True (for default formatting) False (in order to remove this column from hover information), or a formatting string, for example ‘:.3f’ or ‘|%a’ or list-like data to appear in the hover tooltip or tuples with a bool or formatting string as first element, and list-like data to appear in hover as second element Values from these columns appear as extra data in the hover tooltip.

  • custom_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects Values from these columns are extra data, to be used in widgets or Dash callbacks for example. This data is not user-visible but is included in events emitted by the figure (lasso selection etc.)

  • text (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in the figure as text labels.

  • facet_row (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to facetted subplots in the vertical direction.

  • facet_col (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to facetted subplots in the horizontal direction.

  • facet_col_wrap (int) – Maximum number of facet columns. Wraps the column variable at this width, so that the column facets span multiple rows. Ignored if 0, and forced to 0 if facet_row or a marginal is set.

  • facet_row_spacing (float between 0 and 1) – Spacing between facet rows, in paper units. Default is 0.03 or 0.0.7 when facet_col_wrap is used.

  • facet_col_spacing (float between 0 and 1) – Spacing between facet columns, in paper units Default is 0.02.

  • error_x (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to size x-axis error bars. If error_x_minus is None, error bars will be symmetrical, otherwise error_x is used for the positive direction only.

  • error_x_minus (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to size x-axis error bars in the negative direction. Ignored if error_x is None.

  • error_y (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to size y-axis error bars. If error_y_minus is None, error bars will be symmetrical, otherwise error_y is used for the positive direction only.

  • error_y_minus (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to size y-axis error bars in the negative direction. Ignored if error_y is None.

  • animation_frame (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to animation frames.

  • animation_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to provide object-constancy across animation frames: rows with matching `animation_group`s will be treated as if they describe the same object in each frame.

  • category_orders (dict with str keys and list of str values (default {})) – By default, in Python 3.6+, the order of categorical values in axes, legends and facets depends on the order in which these values are first encountered in data_frame (and no order is guaranteed by default in Python below 3.6). This parameter is used to force a specific ordering of values per column. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should be lists of strings corresponding to the specific display order desired.

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • orientation (str, one of 'h' for horizontal or 'v' for vertical.) – (default 'v' if x and y are provided and both continous or both categorical, otherwise 'v'`(‘h’) if `x`(`y) is categorical and y`(`x) is continuous, otherwise 'v'`(‘h’) if only `x`(`y) is provided)

  • color_discrete_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors. When color is set and the values in the corresponding column are not numeric, values in that column are assigned colors by cycling through color_discrete_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of color is a key in color_discrete_map. Various useful color sequences are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.qualitative.

  • color_discrete_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define valid CSS-colors Used to override color_discrete_sequence to assign a specific colors to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in color_discrete_map should be values in the column denoted by color. Alternatively, if the values of color are valid colors, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • color_continuous_scale (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors This list is used to build a continuous color scale when the column denoted by color contains numeric data. Various useful color scales are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.sequential, plotly.express.colors.diverging and plotly.express.colors.cyclical.

  • range_color (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the continuous color scale.

  • color_continuous_midpoint (number (default None)) – If set, computes the bounds of the continuous color scale to have the desired midpoint. Setting this value is recommended when using plotly.express.colors.diverging color scales as the inputs to color_continuous_scale.

  • symbol_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid plotly.js symbols. When symbol is set, values in that column are assigned symbols by cycling through symbol_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of symbol is a key in symbol_map.

  • symbol_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define plotly.js symbols Used to override symbol_sequence to assign a specific symbols to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in symbol_map should be values in the column denoted by symbol. Alternatively, if the values of symbol are valid symbol names, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • opacity (float) – Value between 0 and 1. Sets the opacity for markers.

  • size_max (int (default 20)) – Set the maximum mark size when using size.

  • marginal_x (str) – One of 'rug', 'box', 'violin', or 'histogram'. If set, a horizontal subplot is drawn above the main plot, visualizing the x-distribution.

  • marginal_y (str) – One of 'rug', 'box', 'violin', or 'histogram'. If set, a vertical subplot is drawn to the right of the main plot, visualizing the y-distribution.

  • trendline (str) – One of 'ols' or 'lowess'. If 'ols', an Ordinary Least Squares regression line will be drawn for each discrete-color/symbol group. If 'lowess’, a Locally Weighted Scatterplot Smoothing line will be drawn for each discrete-color/symbol group.

  • trendline_color_override (str) – Valid CSS color. If provided, and if trendline is set, all trendlines will be drawn in this color.

  • log_x (boolean (default False)) – If True, the x-axis is log-scaled in cartesian coordinates.

  • log_y (boolean (default False)) – If True, the y-axis is log-scaled in cartesian coordinates.

  • range_x (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the x-axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • range_y (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the y-axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • render_mode (str) – One of 'auto', 'svg' or 'webgl', default 'auto' Controls the browser API used to draw marks. 'svg’ is appropriate for figures of less than 1000 data points, and will allow for fully-vectorized output. 'webgl' is likely necessary for acceptable performance above 1000 points but rasterizes part of the output. 'auto' uses heuristics to choose the mode.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

plotly.express.scatter_3d(data_frame=None, x=None, y=None, z=None, color=None, symbol=None, size=None, text=None, hover_name=None, hover_data=None, custom_data=None, error_x=None, error_x_minus=None, error_y=None, error_y_minus=None, error_z=None, error_z_minus=None, animation_frame=None, animation_group=None, category_orders={}, labels={}, size_max=None, color_discrete_sequence=None, color_discrete_map={}, color_continuous_scale=None, range_color=None, color_continuous_midpoint=None, symbol_sequence=None, symbol_map={}, opacity=None, log_x=False, log_y=False, log_z=False, range_x=None, range_y=None, range_z=None, title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None)

In a 3D scatter plot, each row of data_frame is represented by a symbol mark in 3D space.

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • x (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the x axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • y (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the y axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • z (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the z axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • color (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign color to marks.

  • symbol (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign symbols to marks.

  • size (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign mark sizes.

  • text (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in the figure as text labels.

  • hover_name (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in bold in the hover tooltip.

  • hover_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like, or dict) – Either a list of names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects or a dict with column names as keys, with values True (for default formatting) False (in order to remove this column from hover information), or a formatting string, for example ‘:.3f’ or ‘|%a’ or list-like data to appear in the hover tooltip or tuples with a bool or formatting string as first element, and list-like data to appear in hover as second element Values from these columns appear as extra data in the hover tooltip.

  • custom_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects Values from these columns are extra data, to be used in widgets or Dash callbacks for example. This data is not user-visible but is included in events emitted by the figure (lasso selection etc.)

  • error_x (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to size x-axis error bars. If error_x_minus is None, error bars will be symmetrical, otherwise error_x is used for the positive direction only.

  • error_x_minus (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to size x-axis error bars in the negative direction. Ignored if error_x is None.

  • error_y (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to size y-axis error bars. If error_y_minus is None, error bars will be symmetrical, otherwise error_y is used for the positive direction only.

  • error_y_minus (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to size y-axis error bars in the negative direction. Ignored if error_y is None.

  • error_z (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to size z-axis error bars. If error_z_minus is None, error bars will be symmetrical, otherwise error_z is used for the positive direction only.

  • error_z_minus (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to size z-axis error bars in the negative direction. Ignored if error_z is None.

  • animation_frame (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to animation frames.

  • animation_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to provide object-constancy across animation frames: rows with matching `animation_group`s will be treated as if they describe the same object in each frame.

  • category_orders (dict with str keys and list of str values (default {})) – By default, in Python 3.6+, the order of categorical values in axes, legends and facets depends on the order in which these values are first encountered in data_frame (and no order is guaranteed by default in Python below 3.6). This parameter is used to force a specific ordering of values per column. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should be lists of strings corresponding to the specific display order desired.

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • size_max (int (default 20)) – Set the maximum mark size when using size.

  • color_discrete_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors. When color is set and the values in the corresponding column are not numeric, values in that column are assigned colors by cycling through color_discrete_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of color is a key in color_discrete_map. Various useful color sequences are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.qualitative.

  • color_discrete_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define valid CSS-colors Used to override color_discrete_sequence to assign a specific colors to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in color_discrete_map should be values in the column denoted by color. Alternatively, if the values of color are valid colors, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • color_continuous_scale (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors This list is used to build a continuous color scale when the column denoted by color contains numeric data. Various useful color scales are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.sequential, plotly.express.colors.diverging and plotly.express.colors.cyclical.

  • range_color (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the continuous color scale.

  • color_continuous_midpoint (number (default None)) – If set, computes the bounds of the continuous color scale to have the desired midpoint. Setting this value is recommended when using plotly.express.colors.diverging color scales as the inputs to color_continuous_scale.

  • symbol_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid plotly.js symbols. When symbol is set, values in that column are assigned symbols by cycling through symbol_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of symbol is a key in symbol_map.

  • symbol_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define plotly.js symbols Used to override symbol_sequence to assign a specific symbols to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in symbol_map should be values in the column denoted by symbol. Alternatively, if the values of symbol are valid symbol names, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • opacity (float) – Value between 0 and 1. Sets the opacity for markers.

  • log_x (boolean (default False)) – If True, the x-axis is log-scaled in cartesian coordinates.

  • log_y (boolean (default False)) – If True, the y-axis is log-scaled in cartesian coordinates.

  • log_z (boolean (default False)) – If True, the z-axis is log-scaled in cartesian coordinates.

  • range_x (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the x-axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • range_y (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the y-axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • range_z (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the z-axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

plotly.express.scatter_geo(data_frame=None, lat=None, lon=None, locations=None, locationmode=None, color=None, text=None, hover_name=None, hover_data=None, custom_data=None, size=None, animation_frame=None, animation_group=None, category_orders={}, labels={}, color_discrete_sequence=None, color_discrete_map={}, color_continuous_scale=None, range_color=None, color_continuous_midpoint=None, opacity=None, size_max=None, projection=None, scope=None, center=None, title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None)

In a geographic scatter plot, each row of data_frame is represented by a symbol mark on a map.

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • lat (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks according to latitude on a map.

  • lon (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks according to longitude on a map.

  • locations (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are to be interpreted according to locationmode and mapped to longitude/latitude.

  • locationmode (str) – One of ‘ISO-3’, ‘USA-states’, or ‘country names’ Determines the set of locations used to match entries in locations to regions on the map.

  • color (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign color to marks.

  • text (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in the figure as text labels.

  • hover_name (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in bold in the hover tooltip.

  • hover_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like, or dict) – Either a list of names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects or a dict with column names as keys, with values True (for default formatting) False (in order to remove this column from hover information), or a formatting string, for example ‘:.3f’ or ‘|%a’ or list-like data to appear in the hover tooltip or tuples with a bool or formatting string as first element, and list-like data to appear in hover as second element Values from these columns appear as extra data in the hover tooltip.

  • custom_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects Values from these columns are extra data, to be used in widgets or Dash callbacks for example. This data is not user-visible but is included in events emitted by the figure (lasso selection etc.)

  • size (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign mark sizes.

  • animation_frame (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to animation frames.

  • animation_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to provide object-constancy across animation frames: rows with matching `animation_group`s will be treated as if they describe the same object in each frame.

  • category_orders (dict with str keys and list of str values (default {})) – By default, in Python 3.6+, the order of categorical values in axes, legends and facets depends on the order in which these values are first encountered in data_frame (and no order is guaranteed by default in Python below 3.6). This parameter is used to force a specific ordering of values per column. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should be lists of strings corresponding to the specific display order desired.

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • color_discrete_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors. When color is set and the values in the corresponding column are not numeric, values in that column are assigned colors by cycling through color_discrete_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of color is a key in color_discrete_map. Various useful color sequences are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.qualitative.

  • color_discrete_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define valid CSS-colors Used to override color_discrete_sequence to assign a specific colors to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in color_discrete_map should be values in the column denoted by color. Alternatively, if the values of color are valid colors, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • color_continuous_scale (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors This list is used to build a continuous color scale when the column denoted by color contains numeric data. Various useful color scales are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.sequential, plotly.express.colors.diverging and plotly.express.colors.cyclical.

  • range_color (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the continuous color scale.

  • color_continuous_midpoint (number (default None)) – If set, computes the bounds of the continuous color scale to have the desired midpoint. Setting this value is recommended when using plotly.express.colors.diverging color scales as the inputs to color_continuous_scale.

  • opacity (float) – Value between 0 and 1. Sets the opacity for markers.

  • size_max (int (default 20)) – Set the maximum mark size when using size.

  • projection (str) – One of 'equirectangular', 'mercator', 'orthographic', 'natural earth', 'kavrayskiy7', 'miller', 'robinson', 'eckert4', 'azimuthal equal area', 'azimuthal equidistant', 'conic equal area', 'conic conformal', 'conic equidistant', 'gnomonic', 'stereographic', 'mollweide', 'hammer', 'transverse mercator', 'albers usa', 'winkel tripel', 'aitoff', or 'sinusoidal'`Default depends on `scope.

  • scope (str (default 'world').) – One of 'world', 'usa', 'europe', 'asia', 'africa', 'north america', or 'south america')Default is 'world' unless projection is set to 'albers usa', which forces 'usa'.

  • center (dict) – Dict keys are 'lat' and 'lon' Sets the center point of the map.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

plotly.express.scatter_mapbox(data_frame=None, lat=None, lon=None, color=None, text=None, hover_name=None, hover_data=None, custom_data=None, size=None, animation_frame=None, animation_group=None, category_orders={}, labels={}, color_discrete_sequence=None, color_discrete_map={}, color_continuous_scale=None, range_color=None, color_continuous_midpoint=None, opacity=None, size_max=None, zoom=8, center=None, mapbox_style=None, title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None)

In a Mapbox scatter plot, each row of data_frame is represented by a symbol mark on a Mapbox map.

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • lat (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks according to latitude on a map.

  • lon (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks according to longitude on a map.

  • color (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign color to marks.

  • text (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in the figure as text labels.

  • hover_name (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in bold in the hover tooltip.

  • hover_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like, or dict) – Either a list of names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects or a dict with column names as keys, with values True (for default formatting) False (in order to remove this column from hover information), or a formatting string, for example ‘:.3f’ or ‘|%a’ or list-like data to appear in the hover tooltip or tuples with a bool or formatting string as first element, and list-like data to appear in hover as second element Values from these columns appear as extra data in the hover tooltip.

  • custom_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects Values from these columns are extra data, to be used in widgets or Dash callbacks for example. This data is not user-visible but is included in events emitted by the figure (lasso selection etc.)

  • size (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign mark sizes.

  • animation_frame (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to animation frames.

  • animation_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to provide object-constancy across animation frames: rows with matching `animation_group`s will be treated as if they describe the same object in each frame.

  • category_orders (dict with str keys and list of str values (default {})) – By default, in Python 3.6+, the order of categorical values in axes, legends and facets depends on the order in which these values are first encountered in data_frame (and no order is guaranteed by default in Python below 3.6). This parameter is used to force a specific ordering of values per column. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should be lists of strings corresponding to the specific display order desired.

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • color_discrete_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors. When color is set and the values in the corresponding column are not numeric, values in that column are assigned colors by cycling through color_discrete_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of color is a key in color_discrete_map. Various useful color sequences are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.qualitative.

  • color_discrete_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define valid CSS-colors Used to override color_discrete_sequence to assign a specific colors to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in color_discrete_map should be values in the column denoted by color. Alternatively, if the values of color are valid colors, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • color_continuous_scale (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors This list is used to build a continuous color scale when the column denoted by color contains numeric data. Various useful color scales are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.sequential, plotly.express.colors.diverging and plotly.express.colors.cyclical.

  • range_color (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the continuous color scale.

  • color_continuous_midpoint (number (default None)) – If set, computes the bounds of the continuous color scale to have the desired midpoint. Setting this value is recommended when using plotly.express.colors.diverging color scales as the inputs to color_continuous_scale.

  • opacity (float) – Value between 0 and 1. Sets the opacity for markers.

  • size_max (int (default 20)) – Set the maximum mark size when using size.

  • zoom (int (default 8)) – Between 0 and 20. Sets map zoom level.

  • center (dict) – Dict keys are 'lat' and 'lon' Sets the center point of the map.

  • mapbox_style (str (default 'basic', needs Mapbox API token)) – Identifier of base map style, some of which require a Mapbox API token to be set using plotly.express.set_mapbox_access_token(). Allowed values which do not require a Mapbox API token are 'open-street-map', 'white-bg', 'carto-positron', 'carto-darkmatter', 'stamen- terrain', 'stamen-toner', 'stamen-watercolor'. Allowed values which do require a Mapbox API token are 'basic', 'streets', 'outdoors', 'light', 'dark', 'satellite', 'satellite- streets'.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

plotly.express.scatter_matrix(data_frame=None, dimensions=None, color=None, symbol=None, size=None, hover_name=None, hover_data=None, custom_data=None, category_orders={}, labels={}, color_discrete_sequence=None, color_discrete_map={}, color_continuous_scale=None, range_color=None, color_continuous_midpoint=None, symbol_sequence=None, symbol_map={}, opacity=None, size_max=None, title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None)

In a scatter plot matrix (or SPLOM), each row of data_frame is represented by a multiple symbol marks, one in each cell of a grid of 2D scatter plots, which plot each pair of dimensions against each other.

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • dimensions (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects Values from these columns are used for multidimensional visualization.

  • color (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign color to marks.

  • symbol (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign symbols to marks.

  • size (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign mark sizes.

  • hover_name (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in bold in the hover tooltip.

  • hover_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like, or dict) – Either a list of names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects or a dict with column names as keys, with values True (for default formatting) False (in order to remove this column from hover information), or a formatting string, for example ‘:.3f’ or ‘|%a’ or list-like data to appear in the hover tooltip or tuples with a bool or formatting string as first element, and list-like data to appear in hover as second element Values from these columns appear as extra data in the hover tooltip.

  • custom_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects Values from these columns are extra data, to be used in widgets or Dash callbacks for example. This data is not user-visible but is included in events emitted by the figure (lasso selection etc.)

  • category_orders (dict with str keys and list of str values (default {})) – By default, in Python 3.6+, the order of categorical values in axes, legends and facets depends on the order in which these values are first encountered in data_frame (and no order is guaranteed by default in Python below 3.6). This parameter is used to force a specific ordering of values per column. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should be lists of strings corresponding to the specific display order desired.

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • color_discrete_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors. When color is set and the values in the corresponding column are not numeric, values in that column are assigned colors by cycling through color_discrete_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of color is a key in color_discrete_map. Various useful color sequences are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.qualitative.

  • color_discrete_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define valid CSS-colors Used to override color_discrete_sequence to assign a specific colors to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in color_discrete_map should be values in the column denoted by color. Alternatively, if the values of color are valid colors, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • color_continuous_scale (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors This list is used to build a continuous color scale when the column denoted by color contains numeric data. Various useful color scales are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.sequential, plotly.express.colors.diverging and plotly.express.colors.cyclical.

  • range_color (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the continuous color scale.

  • color_continuous_midpoint (number (default None)) – If set, computes the bounds of the continuous color scale to have the desired midpoint. Setting this value is recommended when using plotly.express.colors.diverging color scales as the inputs to color_continuous_scale.

  • symbol_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid plotly.js symbols. When symbol is set, values in that column are assigned symbols by cycling through symbol_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of symbol is a key in symbol_map.

  • symbol_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define plotly.js symbols Used to override symbol_sequence to assign a specific symbols to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in symbol_map should be values in the column denoted by symbol. Alternatively, if the values of symbol are valid symbol names, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • opacity (float) – Value between 0 and 1. Sets the opacity for markers.

  • size_max (int (default 20)) – Set the maximum mark size when using size.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

plotly.express.scatter_polar(data_frame=None, r=None, theta=None, color=None, symbol=None, size=None, hover_name=None, hover_data=None, custom_data=None, text=None, animation_frame=None, animation_group=None, category_orders={}, labels={}, color_discrete_sequence=None, color_discrete_map={}, color_continuous_scale=None, range_color=None, color_continuous_midpoint=None, symbol_sequence=None, symbol_map={}, opacity=None, direction='clockwise', start_angle=90, size_max=None, range_r=None, range_theta=None, log_r=False, render_mode='auto', title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None)

In a polar scatter plot, each row of data_frame is represented by a symbol mark in polar coordinates.

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • r (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the radial axis in polar coordinates.

  • theta (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the angular axis in polar coordinates.

  • color (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign color to marks.

  • symbol (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign symbols to marks.

  • size (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign mark sizes.

  • hover_name (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in bold in the hover tooltip.

  • hover_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like, or dict) – Either a list of names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects or a dict with column names as keys, with values True (for default formatting) False (in order to remove this column from hover information), or a formatting string, for example ‘:.3f’ or ‘|%a’ or list-like data to appear in the hover tooltip or tuples with a bool or formatting string as first element, and list-like data to appear in hover as second element Values from these columns appear as extra data in the hover tooltip.

  • custom_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects Values from these columns are extra data, to be used in widgets or Dash callbacks for example. This data is not user-visible but is included in events emitted by the figure (lasso selection etc.)

  • text (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in the figure as text labels.

  • animation_frame (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to animation frames.

  • animation_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to provide object-constancy across animation frames: rows with matching `animation_group`s will be treated as if they describe the same object in each frame.

  • category_orders (dict with str keys and list of str values (default {})) – By default, in Python 3.6+, the order of categorical values in axes, legends and facets depends on the order in which these values are first encountered in data_frame (and no order is guaranteed by default in Python below 3.6). This parameter is used to force a specific ordering of values per column. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should be lists of strings corresponding to the specific display order desired.

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • color_discrete_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors. When color is set and the values in the corresponding column are not numeric, values in that column are assigned colors by cycling through color_discrete_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of color is a key in color_discrete_map. Various useful color sequences are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.qualitative.

  • color_discrete_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define valid CSS-colors Used to override color_discrete_sequence to assign a specific colors to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in color_discrete_map should be values in the column denoted by color. Alternatively, if the values of color are valid colors, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • color_continuous_scale (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors This list is used to build a continuous color scale when the column denoted by color contains numeric data. Various useful color scales are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.sequential, plotly.express.colors.diverging and plotly.express.colors.cyclical.

  • range_color (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the continuous color scale.

  • color_continuous_midpoint (number (default None)) – If set, computes the bounds of the continuous color scale to have the desired midpoint. Setting this value is recommended when using plotly.express.colors.diverging color scales as the inputs to color_continuous_scale.

  • symbol_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid plotly.js symbols. When symbol is set, values in that column are assigned symbols by cycling through symbol_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of symbol is a key in symbol_map.

  • symbol_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define plotly.js symbols Used to override symbol_sequence to assign a specific symbols to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in symbol_map should be values in the column denoted by symbol. Alternatively, if the values of symbol are valid symbol names, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • opacity (float) – Value between 0 and 1. Sets the opacity for markers.

  • direction (str) – One of ‘counterclockwise' or 'clockwise'. Default is 'clockwise' Sets the direction in which increasing values of the angular axis are drawn.

  • start_angle (int (default 90)) – Sets start angle for the angular axis, with 0 being due east and 90 being due north.

  • size_max (int (default 20)) – Set the maximum mark size when using size.

  • range_r (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the radial axis in polar coordinates.

  • range_theta (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the angular axis in polar coordinates.

  • log_r (boolean (default False)) – If True, the radial axis is log-scaled in polar coordinates.

  • render_mode (str) – One of 'auto', 'svg' or 'webgl', default 'auto' Controls the browser API used to draw marks. 'svg’ is appropriate for figures of less than 1000 data points, and will allow for fully-vectorized output. 'webgl' is likely necessary for acceptable performance above 1000 points but rasterizes part of the output. 'auto' uses heuristics to choose the mode.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

plotly.express.scatter_ternary(data_frame=None, a=None, b=None, c=None, color=None, symbol=None, size=None, text=None, hover_name=None, hover_data=None, custom_data=None, animation_frame=None, animation_group=None, category_orders={}, labels={}, color_discrete_sequence=None, color_discrete_map={}, color_continuous_scale=None, range_color=None, color_continuous_midpoint=None, symbol_sequence=None, symbol_map={}, opacity=None, size_max=None, title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None)

In a ternary scatter plot, each row of data_frame is represented by a symbol mark in ternary coordinates.

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • a (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the a axis in ternary coordinates.

  • b (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the b axis in ternary coordinates.

  • c (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the c axis in ternary coordinates.

  • color (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign color to marks.

  • symbol (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign symbols to marks.

  • size (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign mark sizes.

  • text (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in the figure as text labels.

  • hover_name (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in bold in the hover tooltip.

  • hover_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like, or dict) – Either a list of names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects or a dict with column names as keys, with values True (for default formatting) False (in order to remove this column from hover information), or a formatting string, for example ‘:.3f’ or ‘|%a’ or list-like data to appear in the hover tooltip or tuples with a bool or formatting string as first element, and list-like data to appear in hover as second element Values from these columns appear as extra data in the hover tooltip.

  • custom_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects Values from these columns are extra data, to be used in widgets or Dash callbacks for example. This data is not user-visible but is included in events emitted by the figure (lasso selection etc.)

  • animation_frame (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to animation frames.

  • animation_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to provide object-constancy across animation frames: rows with matching `animation_group`s will be treated as if they describe the same object in each frame.

  • category_orders (dict with str keys and list of str values (default {})) – By default, in Python 3.6+, the order of categorical values in axes, legends and facets depends on the order in which these values are first encountered in data_frame (and no order is guaranteed by default in Python below 3.6). This parameter is used to force a specific ordering of values per column. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should be lists of strings corresponding to the specific display order desired.

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • color_discrete_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors. When color is set and the values in the corresponding column are not numeric, values in that column are assigned colors by cycling through color_discrete_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of color is a key in color_discrete_map. Various useful color sequences are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.qualitative.

  • color_discrete_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define valid CSS-colors Used to override color_discrete_sequence to assign a specific colors to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in color_discrete_map should be values in the column denoted by color. Alternatively, if the values of color are valid colors, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • color_continuous_scale (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors This list is used to build a continuous color scale when the column denoted by color contains numeric data. Various useful color scales are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.sequential, plotly.express.colors.diverging and plotly.express.colors.cyclical.

  • range_color (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the continuous color scale.

  • color_continuous_midpoint (number (default None)) – If set, computes the bounds of the continuous color scale to have the desired midpoint. Setting this value is recommended when using plotly.express.colors.diverging color scales as the inputs to color_continuous_scale.

  • symbol_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid plotly.js symbols. When symbol is set, values in that column are assigned symbols by cycling through symbol_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of symbol is a key in symbol_map.

  • symbol_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define plotly.js symbols Used to override symbol_sequence to assign a specific symbols to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in symbol_map should be values in the column denoted by symbol. Alternatively, if the values of symbol are valid symbol names, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • opacity (float) – Value between 0 and 1. Sets the opacity for markers.

  • size_max (int (default 20)) – Set the maximum mark size when using size.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

plotly.express.set_mapbox_access_token(token)
Parameters

token – A Mapbox token to be used in plotly.express.scatter_mapbox and plotly.express.line_mapbox figures. See https://docs.mapbox.com/help/how-mapbox-works/access-tokens/ for more details

plotly.express.strip(data_frame=None, x=None, y=None, color=None, facet_row=None, facet_col=None, facet_col_wrap=0, facet_row_spacing=None, facet_col_spacing=None, hover_name=None, hover_data=None, custom_data=None, animation_frame=None, animation_group=None, category_orders={}, labels={}, color_discrete_sequence=None, color_discrete_map={}, orientation=None, stripmode=None, log_x=False, log_y=False, range_x=None, range_y=None, title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None)

In a strip plot each row of data_frame is represented as a jittered mark within categories.

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • x (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the x axis in cartesian coordinates. Either x or y can optionally be a list of column references or array_likes, in which case the data will be treated as if it were ‘wide’ rather than ‘long’.

  • y (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the y axis in cartesian coordinates. Either x or y can optionally be a list of column references or array_likes, in which case the data will be treated as if it were ‘wide’ rather than ‘long’.

  • color (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign color to marks.

  • facet_row (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to facetted subplots in the vertical direction.

  • facet_col (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to facetted subplots in the horizontal direction.

  • facet_col_wrap (int) – Maximum number of facet columns. Wraps the column variable at this width, so that the column facets span multiple rows. Ignored if 0, and forced to 0 if facet_row or a marginal is set.

  • facet_row_spacing (float between 0 and 1) – Spacing between facet rows, in paper units. Default is 0.03 or 0.0.7 when facet_col_wrap is used.

  • facet_col_spacing (float between 0 and 1) – Spacing between facet columns, in paper units Default is 0.02.

  • hover_name (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in bold in the hover tooltip.

  • hover_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like, or dict) – Either a list of names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects or a dict with column names as keys, with values True (for default formatting) False (in order to remove this column from hover information), or a formatting string, for example ‘:.3f’ or ‘|%a’ or list-like data to appear in the hover tooltip or tuples with a bool or formatting string as first element, and list-like data to appear in hover as second element Values from these columns appear as extra data in the hover tooltip.

  • custom_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects Values from these columns are extra data, to be used in widgets or Dash callbacks for example. This data is not user-visible but is included in events emitted by the figure (lasso selection etc.)

  • animation_frame (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to animation frames.

  • animation_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to provide object-constancy across animation frames: rows with matching `animation_group`s will be treated as if they describe the same object in each frame.

  • category_orders (dict with str keys and list of str values (default {})) – By default, in Python 3.6+, the order of categorical values in axes, legends and facets depends on the order in which these values are first encountered in data_frame (and no order is guaranteed by default in Python below 3.6). This parameter is used to force a specific ordering of values per column. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should be lists of strings corresponding to the specific display order desired.

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • color_discrete_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors. When color is set and the values in the corresponding column are not numeric, values in that column are assigned colors by cycling through color_discrete_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of color is a key in color_discrete_map. Various useful color sequences are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.qualitative.

  • color_discrete_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define valid CSS-colors Used to override color_discrete_sequence to assign a specific colors to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in color_discrete_map should be values in the column denoted by color. Alternatively, if the values of color are valid colors, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • orientation (str, one of 'h' for horizontal or 'v' for vertical.) – (default 'v' if x and y are provided and both continous or both categorical, otherwise 'v'`(‘h’) if `x`(`y) is categorical and y`(`x) is continuous, otherwise 'v'`(‘h’) if only `x`(`y) is provided)

  • stripmode (str (default 'group')) – One of 'group' or 'overlay' In 'overlay' mode, strips are on drawn top of one another. In 'group' mode, strips are placed beside each other.

  • log_x (boolean (default False)) – If True, the x-axis is log-scaled in cartesian coordinates.

  • log_y (boolean (default False)) – If True, the y-axis is log-scaled in cartesian coordinates.

  • range_x (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the x-axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • range_y (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the y-axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

plotly.express.sunburst(data_frame=None, names=None, values=None, parents=None, path=None, ids=None, color=None, color_continuous_scale=None, range_color=None, color_continuous_midpoint=None, color_discrete_sequence=None, color_discrete_map={}, hover_name=None, hover_data=None, custom_data=None, labels={}, title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None, branchvalues=None, maxdepth=None)

A sunburst plot represents hierarchial data as sectors laid out over several levels of concentric rings.

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • names (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used as labels for sectors.

  • values (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to set values associated to sectors.

  • parents (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used as parents in sunburst and treemap charts.

  • path (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects List of columns names or columns of a rectangular dataframe defining the hierarchy of sectors, from root to leaves. An error is raised if path AND ids or parents is passed

  • ids (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to set ids of sectors

  • color (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign color to marks.

  • color_continuous_scale (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors This list is used to build a continuous color scale when the column denoted by color contains numeric data. Various useful color scales are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.sequential, plotly.express.colors.diverging and plotly.express.colors.cyclical.

  • range_color (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the continuous color scale.

  • color_continuous_midpoint (number (default None)) – If set, computes the bounds of the continuous color scale to have the desired midpoint. Setting this value is recommended when using plotly.express.colors.diverging color scales as the inputs to color_continuous_scale.

  • color_discrete_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors. When color is set and the values in the corresponding column are not numeric, values in that column are assigned colors by cycling through color_discrete_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of color is a key in color_discrete_map. Various useful color sequences are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.qualitative.

  • color_discrete_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define valid CSS-colors Used to override color_discrete_sequence to assign a specific colors to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in color_discrete_map should be values in the column denoted by color. Alternatively, if the values of color are valid colors, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • hover_name (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in bold in the hover tooltip.

  • hover_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like, or dict) – Either a list of names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects or a dict with column names as keys, with values True (for default formatting) False (in order to remove this column from hover information), or a formatting string, for example ‘:.3f’ or ‘|%a’ or list-like data to appear in the hover tooltip or tuples with a bool or formatting string as first element, and list-like data to appear in hover as second element Values from these columns appear as extra data in the hover tooltip.

  • custom_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects Values from these columns are extra data, to be used in widgets or Dash callbacks for example. This data is not user-visible but is included in events emitted by the figure (lasso selection etc.)

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

  • branchvalues (str) – ‘total’ or ‘remainder’ Determines how the items in values are summed. Whenset to ‘total’, items in values are taken to be valueof all its descendants. When set to ‘remainder’, itemsin values corresponding to the root and the branches:sectors are taken to be the extra part not part of thesum of the values at their leaves.

  • maxdepth (int) – Positive integer Sets the number of rendered sectors from any given level. Set maxdepth to -1 to render all thelevels in the hierarchy.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

plotly.express.timeline(data_frame=None, x_start=None, x_end=None, y=None, color=None, facet_row=None, facet_col=None, facet_col_wrap=0, facet_row_spacing=None, facet_col_spacing=None, hover_name=None, hover_data=None, custom_data=None, text=None, animation_frame=None, animation_group=None, category_orders={}, labels={}, color_discrete_sequence=None, color_discrete_map={}, color_continuous_scale=None, range_color=None, color_continuous_midpoint=None, opacity=None, range_x=None, range_y=None, title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None)

In a timeline plot, each row of data_frame is represented as a rectangular mark on an x axis of type date, spanning from x_start to x_end.

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • x_start (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. (required) Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the x axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • x_end (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. (required) Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the x axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • y (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the y axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • color (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign color to marks.

  • facet_row (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to facetted subplots in the vertical direction.

  • facet_col (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to facetted subplots in the horizontal direction.

  • facet_col_wrap (int) – Maximum number of facet columns. Wraps the column variable at this width, so that the column facets span multiple rows. Ignored if 0, and forced to 0 if facet_row or a marginal is set.

  • facet_row_spacing (float between 0 and 1) – Spacing between facet rows, in paper units. Default is 0.03 or 0.0.7 when facet_col_wrap is used.

  • facet_col_spacing (float between 0 and 1) – Spacing between facet columns, in paper units Default is 0.02.

  • hover_name (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in bold in the hover tooltip.

  • hover_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like, or dict) – Either a list of names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects or a dict with column names as keys, with values True (for default formatting) False (in order to remove this column from hover information), or a formatting string, for example ‘:.3f’ or ‘|%a’ or list-like data to appear in the hover tooltip or tuples with a bool or formatting string as first element, and list-like data to appear in hover as second element Values from these columns appear as extra data in the hover tooltip.

  • custom_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects Values from these columns are extra data, to be used in widgets or Dash callbacks for example. This data is not user-visible but is included in events emitted by the figure (lasso selection etc.)

  • text (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in the figure as text labels.

  • animation_frame (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to animation frames.

  • animation_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to provide object-constancy across animation frames: rows with matching `animation_group`s will be treated as if they describe the same object in each frame.

  • category_orders (dict with str keys and list of str values (default {})) – By default, in Python 3.6+, the order of categorical values in axes, legends and facets depends on the order in which these values are first encountered in data_frame (and no order is guaranteed by default in Python below 3.6). This parameter is used to force a specific ordering of values per column. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should be lists of strings corresponding to the specific display order desired.

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • color_discrete_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors. When color is set and the values in the corresponding column are not numeric, values in that column are assigned colors by cycling through color_discrete_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of color is a key in color_discrete_map. Various useful color sequences are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.qualitative.

  • color_discrete_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define valid CSS-colors Used to override color_discrete_sequence to assign a specific colors to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in color_discrete_map should be values in the column denoted by color. Alternatively, if the values of color are valid colors, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • color_continuous_scale (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors This list is used to build a continuous color scale when the column denoted by color contains numeric data. Various useful color scales are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.sequential, plotly.express.colors.diverging and plotly.express.colors.cyclical.

  • range_color (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the continuous color scale.

  • color_continuous_midpoint (number (default None)) – If set, computes the bounds of the continuous color scale to have the desired midpoint. Setting this value is recommended when using plotly.express.colors.diverging color scales as the inputs to color_continuous_scale.

  • opacity (float) – Value between 0 and 1. Sets the opacity for markers.

  • range_x (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the x-axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • range_y (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the y-axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

plotly.express.treemap(data_frame=None, names=None, values=None, parents=None, ids=None, path=None, color=None, color_continuous_scale=None, range_color=None, color_continuous_midpoint=None, color_discrete_sequence=None, color_discrete_map={}, hover_name=None, hover_data=None, custom_data=None, labels={}, title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None, branchvalues=None, maxdepth=None)

A treemap plot represents hierarchial data as nested rectangular sectors.

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • names (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used as labels for sectors.

  • values (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to set values associated to sectors.

  • parents (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used as parents in sunburst and treemap charts.

  • ids (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to set ids of sectors

  • path (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects List of columns names or columns of a rectangular dataframe defining the hierarchy of sectors, from root to leaves. An error is raised if path AND ids or parents is passed

  • color (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign color to marks.

  • color_continuous_scale (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors This list is used to build a continuous color scale when the column denoted by color contains numeric data. Various useful color scales are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.sequential, plotly.express.colors.diverging and plotly.express.colors.cyclical.

  • range_color (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the continuous color scale.

  • color_continuous_midpoint (number (default None)) – If set, computes the bounds of the continuous color scale to have the desired midpoint. Setting this value is recommended when using plotly.express.colors.diverging color scales as the inputs to color_continuous_scale.

  • color_discrete_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors. When color is set and the values in the corresponding column are not numeric, values in that column are assigned colors by cycling through color_discrete_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of color is a key in color_discrete_map. Various useful color sequences are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.qualitative.

  • color_discrete_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define valid CSS-colors Used to override color_discrete_sequence to assign a specific colors to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in color_discrete_map should be values in the column denoted by color. Alternatively, if the values of color are valid colors, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • hover_name (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in bold in the hover tooltip.

  • hover_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like, or dict) – Either a list of names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects or a dict with column names as keys, with values True (for default formatting) False (in order to remove this column from hover information), or a formatting string, for example ‘:.3f’ or ‘|%a’ or list-like data to appear in the hover tooltip or tuples with a bool or formatting string as first element, and list-like data to appear in hover as second element Values from these columns appear as extra data in the hover tooltip.

  • custom_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects Values from these columns are extra data, to be used in widgets or Dash callbacks for example. This data is not user-visible but is included in events emitted by the figure (lasso selection etc.)

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

  • branchvalues (str) – ‘total’ or ‘remainder’ Determines how the items in values are summed. Whenset to ‘total’, items in values are taken to be valueof all its descendants. When set to ‘remainder’, itemsin values corresponding to the root and the branches:sectors are taken to be the extra part not part of thesum of the values at their leaves.

  • maxdepth (int) – Positive integer Sets the number of rendered sectors from any given level. Set maxdepth to -1 to render all thelevels in the hierarchy.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

plotly.express.violin(data_frame=None, x=None, y=None, color=None, facet_row=None, facet_col=None, facet_col_wrap=0, facet_row_spacing=None, facet_col_spacing=None, hover_name=None, hover_data=None, custom_data=None, animation_frame=None, animation_group=None, category_orders={}, labels={}, color_discrete_sequence=None, color_discrete_map={}, orientation=None, violinmode=None, log_x=False, log_y=False, range_x=None, range_y=None, points=None, box=False, title=None, template=None, width=None, height=None)

In a violin plot, rows of data_frame are grouped together into a curved mark to visualize their distribution.

Parameters
  • data_frame (DataFrame or array-like or dict) – This argument needs to be passed for column names (and not keyword names) to be used. Array-like and dict are tranformed internally to a pandas DataFrame. Optional: if missing, a DataFrame gets constructed under the hood using the other arguments.

  • x (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the x axis in cartesian coordinates. Either x or y can optionally be a list of column references or array_likes, in which case the data will be treated as if it were ‘wide’ rather than ‘long’.

  • y (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to position marks along the y axis in cartesian coordinates. Either x or y can optionally be a list of column references or array_likes, in which case the data will be treated as if it were ‘wide’ rather than ‘long’.

  • color (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign color to marks.

  • facet_row (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to facetted subplots in the vertical direction.

  • facet_col (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to facetted subplots in the horizontal direction.

  • facet_col_wrap (int) – Maximum number of facet columns. Wraps the column variable at this width, so that the column facets span multiple rows. Ignored if 0, and forced to 0 if facet_row or a marginal is set.

  • facet_row_spacing (float between 0 and 1) – Spacing between facet rows, in paper units. Default is 0.03 or 0.0.7 when facet_col_wrap is used.

  • facet_col_spacing (float between 0 and 1) – Spacing between facet columns, in paper units Default is 0.02.

  • hover_name (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like appear in bold in the hover tooltip.

  • hover_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like, or dict) – Either a list of names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects or a dict with column names as keys, with values True (for default formatting) False (in order to remove this column from hover information), or a formatting string, for example ‘:.3f’ or ‘|%a’ or list-like data to appear in the hover tooltip or tuples with a bool or formatting string as first element, and list-like data to appear in hover as second element Values from these columns appear as extra data in the hover tooltip.

  • custom_data (list of str or int, or Series or array-like) – Either names of columns in data_frame, or pandas Series, or array_like objects Values from these columns are extra data, to be used in widgets or Dash callbacks for example. This data is not user-visible but is included in events emitted by the figure (lasso selection etc.)

  • animation_frame (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to assign marks to animation frames.

  • animation_group (str or int or Series or array-like) – Either a name of a column in data_frame, or a pandas Series or array_like object. Values from this column or array_like are used to provide object-constancy across animation frames: rows with matching `animation_group`s will be treated as if they describe the same object in each frame.

  • category_orders (dict with str keys and list of str values (default {})) – By default, in Python 3.6+, the order of categorical values in axes, legends and facets depends on the order in which these values are first encountered in data_frame (and no order is guaranteed by default in Python below 3.6). This parameter is used to force a specific ordering of values per column. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should be lists of strings corresponding to the specific display order desired.

  • labels (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – By default, column names are used in the figure for axis titles, legend entries and hovers. This parameter allows this to be overridden. The keys of this dict should correspond to column names, and the values should correspond to the desired label to be displayed.

  • color_discrete_sequence (list of str) – Strings should define valid CSS-colors. When color is set and the values in the corresponding column are not numeric, values in that column are assigned colors by cycling through color_discrete_sequence in the order described in category_orders, unless the value of color is a key in color_discrete_map. Various useful color sequences are available in the plotly.express.colors submodules, specifically plotly.express.colors.qualitative.

  • color_discrete_map (dict with str keys and str values (default {})) – String values should define valid CSS-colors Used to override color_discrete_sequence to assign a specific colors to marks corresponding with specific values. Keys in color_discrete_map should be values in the column denoted by color. Alternatively, if the values of color are valid colors, the string 'identity' may be passed to cause them to be used directly.

  • orientation (str, one of 'h' for horizontal or 'v' for vertical.) – (default 'v' if x and y are provided and both continous or both categorical, otherwise 'v'`(‘h’) if `x`(`y) is categorical and y`(`x) is continuous, otherwise 'v'`(‘h’) if only `x`(`y) is provided)

  • violinmode (str (default 'group')) – One of 'group' or 'overlay' In 'overlay' mode, violins are on drawn top of one another. In 'group' mode, violins are placed beside each other.

  • log_x (boolean (default False)) – If True, the x-axis is log-scaled in cartesian coordinates.

  • log_y (boolean (default False)) – If True, the y-axis is log-scaled in cartesian coordinates.

  • range_x (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the x-axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • range_y (list of two numbers) – If provided, overrides auto-scaling on the y-axis in cartesian coordinates.

  • points (str or boolean (default 'outliers')) – One of 'outliers', 'suspectedoutliers', 'all', or False. If 'outliers', only the sample points lying outside the whiskers are shown. If 'suspectedoutliers', all outlier points are shown and those less than 4*Q1-3*Q3 or greater than 4*Q3-3*Q1 are highlighted with the marker’s 'outliercolor'. If 'outliers', only the sample points lying outside the whiskers are shown. If 'all', all sample points are shown. If False, no sample points are shown and the whiskers extend to the full range of the sample.

  • box (boolean (default False)) – If True, boxes are drawn inside the violins.

  • title (str) – The figure title.

  • template (str or dict or plotly.graph_objects.layout.Template instance) – The figure template name (must be a key in plotly.io.templates) or definition.

  • width (int (default None)) – The figure width in pixels.

  • height (int (default None)) – The figure height in pixels.

Returns

Return type

plotly.graph_objects.Figure

Submodules

plotly.express.imshow_utils module

Vendored code from scikit-image in order to limit the number of dependencies Extracted from scikit-image/skimage/exposure/exposure.py

plotly.express.imshow_utils.intensity_range(image, range_values='image', clip_negative=False)

Return image intensity range (min, max) based on desired value type.

Parameters
  • image (array) – Input image.

  • range_values (str or 2-tuple, optional) –

    The image intensity range is configured by this parameter. The possible values for this parameter are enumerated below.

    ’image’

    Return image min/max as the range.

    ’dtype’

    Return min/max of the image’s dtype as the range.

    dtype-name

    Return intensity range based on desired dtype. Must be valid key in DTYPE_RANGE. Note: image is ignored for this range type.

    2-tuple

    Return range_values as min/max intensities. Note that there’s no reason to use this function if you just want to specify the intensity range explicitly. This option is included for functions that use intensity_range to support all desired range types.

  • clip_negative (bool, optional) – If True, clip the negative range (i.e. return 0 for min intensity) even if the image dtype allows negative values.

plotly.express.imshow_utils.rescale_intensity(image, in_range='image', out_range='dtype')

Return image after stretching or shrinking its intensity levels.

The desired intensity range of the input and output, in_range and out_range respectively, are used to stretch or shrink the intensity range of the input image. See examples below.

Parameters
  • image (array) – Image array.

  • out_range (in_range,) –

    Min and max intensity values of input and output image. The possible values for this parameter are enumerated below.

    ’image’

    Use image min/max as the intensity range.

    ’dtype’

    Use min/max of the image’s dtype as the intensity range.

    dtype-name

    Use intensity range based on desired dtype. Must be valid key in DTYPE_RANGE.

    2-tuple

    Use range_values as explicit min/max intensities.

Returns

out – Image array after rescaling its intensity. This image is the same dtype as the input image.

Return type

array

Notes

Changed in version 0.17: The dtype of the output array has changed to match the output dtype, or float if the output range is specified by a pair of floats.

See also

equalize_hist()

Examples

By default, the min/max intensities of the input image are stretched to the limits allowed by the image’s dtype, since in_range defaults to ‘image’ and out_range defaults to ‘dtype’:

>>> image = np.array([51, 102, 153], dtype=np.uint8)
>>> rescale_intensity(image)
array([  0, 127, 255], dtype=uint8)

It’s easy to accidentally convert an image dtype from uint8 to float:

>>> 1.0 * image
array([ 51., 102., 153.])

Use rescale_intensity to rescale to the proper range for float dtypes:

>>> image_float = 1.0 * image
>>> rescale_intensity(image_float)
array([0. , 0.5, 1. ])

To maintain the low contrast of the original, use the in_range parameter:

>>> rescale_intensity(image_float, in_range=(0, 255))
array([0.2, 0.4, 0.6])

If the min/max value of in_range is more/less than the min/max image intensity, then the intensity levels are clipped:

>>> rescale_intensity(image_float, in_range=(0, 102))
array([0.5, 1. , 1. ])

If you have an image with signed integers but want to rescale the image to just the positive range, use the out_range parameter. In that case, the output dtype will be float:

>>> image = np.array([-10, 0, 10], dtype=np.int8)
>>> rescale_intensity(image, out_range=(0, 127))
array([  0. ,  63.5, 127. ])

To get the desired range with a specific dtype, use .astype():

>>> rescale_intensity(image, out_range=(0, 127)).astype(np.int8)
array([  0,  63, 127], dtype=int8)

If the input image is constant, the output will be clipped directly to the output range: >>> image = np.array([130, 130, 130], dtype=np.int32) >>> rescale_intensity(image, out_range=(0, 127)).astype(np.int32) array([127, 127, 127], dtype=int32)

plotly.express.png module

The png module can read and write PNG files.

Installation and Overview

pip install pypng

For help, type import png; help(png) in your python interpreter.

A good place to start is the Reader and Writer classes.

Coverage of PNG formats is fairly complete; all allowable bit depths (1/2/4/8/16/24/32/48/64 bits per pixel) and colour combinations are supported:

  • greyscale (1/2/4/8/16 bit);

  • RGB, RGBA, LA (greyscale with alpha) with 8/16 bits per channel;

  • colour mapped images (1/2/4/8 bit).

Interlaced images, which support a progressive display when downloading, are supported for both reading and writing.

A number of optional chunks can be specified (when writing) and understood (when reading): tRNS, bKGD, gAMA.

The sBIT chunk can be used to specify precision for non-native bit depths.

Requires Python 3.5 or higher. Installation is trivial, but see the README.txt file (with the source distribution) for details.

Full use of all features will need some reading of the PNG specification http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/REC-PNG-20031110/.

The package also comes with command line utilities.

  • pripamtopng converts Netpbm PAM/PNM files to PNG;

  • pripngtopam converts PNG to file PAM/PNM.

There are a few more for simple PNG manipulations.

Spelling and Terminology

Generally British English spelling is used in the documentation. So that’s “greyscale” and “colour”. This not only matches the author’s native language, it’s also used by the PNG specification.

Colour Models

The major colour models supported by PNG (and hence by PyPNG) are:

  • greyscale;

  • greyscale–alpha;

  • RGB;

  • RGB–alpha.

Also referred to using the abbreviations: L, LA, RGB, RGBA. Each letter codes a single channel: L is for Luminance or Luma or Lightness (greyscale images); A stands for Alpha, the opacity channel (used for transparency effects, but higher values are more opaque, so it makes sense to call it opacity); R, G, B stand for Red, Green, Blue (colour image).

Lists, arrays, sequences, and so on

When getting pixel data out of this module (reading) and presenting data to this module (writing) there are a number of ways the data could be represented as a Python value.

The preferred format is a sequence of rows, which each row being a sequence of values. In this format, the values are in pixel order, with all the values from all the pixels in a row being concatenated into a single sequence for that row.

Consider an image that is 3 pixels wide by 2 pixels high, and each pixel has RGB components:

Sequence of rows:

list([R,G,B, R,G,B, R,G,B],
     [R,G,B, R,G,B, R,G,B])

Each row appears as its own list, but the pixels are flattened so that three values for one pixel simply follow the three values for the previous pixel.

This is the preferred because it provides a good compromise between space and convenience. PyPNG regards itself as at liberty to replace any sequence type with any sufficiently compatible other sequence type; in practice each row is an array (bytearray or array.array).

To allow streaming the outer list is sometimes an iterator rather than an explicit list.

An alternative format is a single array holding all the values.

Array of values:

[R,G,B, R,G,B, R,G,B,
 R,G,B, R,G,B, R,G,B]

The entire image is one single giant sequence of colour values. Generally an array will be used (to save space), not a list.

The top row comes first, and within each row the pixels are ordered from left-to-right. Within a pixel the values appear in the order R-G-B-A (or L-A for greyscale–alpha).

There is another format, which should only be used with caution. It is mentioned because it is used internally, is close to what lies inside a PNG file itself, and has some support from the public API. This format is called packed. When packed, each row is a sequence of bytes (integers from 0 to 255), just as it is before PNG scanline filtering is applied. When the bit depth is 8 this is the same as a sequence of rows; when the bit depth is less than 8 (1, 2 and 4), several pixels are packed into each byte; when the bit depth is 16 each pixel value is decomposed into 2 bytes (and packed is a misnomer). This format is used by the Writer.write_packed() method. It isn’t usually a convenient format, but may be just right if the source data for the PNG image comes from something that uses a similar format (for example, 1-bit BMPs, or another PNG file).

class plotly.express.png.Image(rows, info)

Bases: object

A PNG image. You can create an Image object from an array of pixels by calling png.from_array(). It can be saved to disk with the save() method.

save(file)

Save the image to the named file.

See .write() if you already have an open file object.

In general, you can only call this method once; after it has been called the first time the PNG image is written, the source data will have been streamed, and cannot be streamed again.

write(file)

Write the image to the open file object.

See .save() if you have a filename.

In general, you can only call this method once; after it has been called the first time the PNG image is written, the source data will have been streamed, and cannot be streamed again.

class plotly.express.png.Reader(_guess=None, filename=None, file=None, bytes=None)

Bases: object

Pure Python PNG decoder in pure Python.

asDirect()

Returns the image data as a direct representation of an x * y * planes array. This removes the need for callers to deal with palettes and transparency themselves. Images with a palette (colour type 3) are converted to RGB or RGBA; images with transparency (a tRNS chunk) are converted to LA or RGBA as appropriate. When returned in this format the pixel values represent the colour value directly without needing to refer to palettes or transparency information.

Like the read() method this method returns a 4-tuple:

(width, height, rows, info)

This method normally returns pixel values with the bit depth they have in the source image, but when the source PNG has an sBIT chunk it is inspected and can reduce the bit depth of the result pixels; pixel values will be reduced according to the bit depth specified in the sBIT chunk. PNG nerds should note a single result bit depth is used for all channels: the maximum of the ones specified in the sBIT chunk. An RGB565 image will be rescaled to 6-bit RGB666.

The info dictionary that is returned reflects the direct format and not the original source image. For example, an RGB source image with a tRNS chunk to represent a transparent colour, will start with planes=3 and alpha=False for the source image, but the info dictionary returned by this method will have planes=4 and alpha=True because an alpha channel is synthesized and added.

rows is a sequence of rows; each row being a sequence of values (like the read() method).

All the other aspects of the image data are not changed.

asRGB()

Return image as RGB pixels. RGB colour images are passed through unchanged; greyscales are expanded into RGB triplets (there is a small speed overhead for doing this).

An alpha channel in the source image will raise an exception.

The return values are as for the read() method except that the info reflect the returned pixels, not the source image. In particular, for this method info['greyscale'] will be False.

asRGB8()

Return the image data as an RGB pixels with 8-bits per sample. This is like the asRGB() method except that this method additionally rescales the values so that they are all between 0 and 255 (8-bit). In the case where the source image has a bit depth < 8 the transformation preserves all the information; where the source image has bit depth > 8, then rescaling to 8-bit values loses precision. No dithering is performed. Like asRGB(), an alpha channel in the source image will raise an exception.

This function returns a 4-tuple: (width, height, rows, info). width, height, info are as per the read() method.

rows is the pixel data as a sequence of rows.

asRGBA()

Return image as RGBA pixels. Greyscales are expanded into RGB triplets; an alpha channel is synthesized if necessary. The return values are as for the read() method except that the info reflect the returned pixels, not the source image. In particular, for this method info['greyscale'] will be False, and info['alpha'] will be True.

asRGBA8()

Return the image data as RGBA pixels with 8-bits per sample. This method is similar to asRGB8() and asRGBA(): The result pixels have an alpha channel, and values are rescaled to the range 0 to 255. The alpha channel is synthesized if necessary (with a small speed penalty).

chunk(lenient=False)

Read the next PNG chunk from the input file; returns a (type, data) tuple. type is the chunk’s type as a byte string (all PNG chunk types are 4 bytes long). data is the chunk’s data content, as a byte string.

If the optional lenient argument evaluates to True, checksum failures will raise warnings rather than exceptions.

chunks()

Return an iterator that will yield each chunk as a (chunktype, content) pair.

palette(alpha='natural')

Returns a palette that is a sequence of 3-tuples or 4-tuples, synthesizing it from the PLTE and tRNS chunks. These chunks should have already been processed (for example, by calling the preamble() method). All the tuples are the same size: 3-tuples if there is no tRNS chunk, 4-tuples when there is a tRNS chunk.

Assumes that the image is colour type 3 and therefore a PLTE chunk is required.

If the alpha argument is 'force' then an alpha channel is always added, forcing the result to be a sequence of 4-tuples.

preamble(lenient=False)

Extract the image metadata by reading the initial part of the PNG file up to the start of the IDAT chunk. All the chunks that precede the IDAT chunk are read and either processed for metadata or discarded.

If the optional lenient argument evaluates to True, checksum failures will raise warnings rather than exceptions.

process_chunk(lenient=False)

Process the next chunk and its data. This only processes the following chunk types: IHDR, PLTE, bKGD, tRNS, gAMA, sBIT, pHYs. All other chunk types are ignored.

If the optional lenient argument evaluates to True, checksum failures will raise warnings rather than exceptions.

read(lenient=False)

Read the PNG file and decode it. Returns (width, height, rows, info).

May use excessive memory.

rows is a sequence of rows; each row is a sequence of values.

If the optional lenient argument evaluates to True, checksum failures will raise warnings rather than exceptions.

read_flat()

Read a PNG file and decode it into a single array of values. Returns (width, height, values, info).

May use excessive memory.

values is a single array.

The read() method is more stream-friendly than this, because it returns a sequence of rows.

undo_filter(filter_type, scanline, previous)

Undo the filter for a scanline. scanline is a sequence of bytes that does not include the initial filter type byte. previous is decoded previous scanline (for straightlaced images this is the previous pixel row, but for interlaced images, it is the previous scanline in the reduced image, which in general is not the previous pixel row in the final image). When there is no previous scanline (the first row of a straightlaced image, or the first row in one of the passes in an interlaced image), then this argument should be None.

The scanline will have the effects of filtering removed; the result will be returned as a fresh sequence of bytes.

validate_signature()

If signature (header) has not been read then read and validate it; otherwise do nothing.

class plotly.express.png.Writer(width=None, height=None, size=None, greyscale=<class 'plotly.express.png.Default'>, alpha=False, bitdepth=8, palette=None, transparent=None, background=None, gamma=None, compression=None, interlace=False, planes=None, colormap=None, maxval=None, chunk_limit=1048576, x_pixels_per_unit=None, y_pixels_per_unit=None, unit_is_meter=False)

Bases: object

PNG encoder in pure Python.

array_scanlines(pixels)

Generates rows (each a sequence of values) from a single array of values.

array_scanlines_interlace(pixels)

Generator for interlaced scanlines from an array. pixels is the full source image as a single array of values. The generator yields each scanline of the reduced passes in turn, each scanline being a sequence of values.

write(outfile, rows)

Write a PNG image to the output file. rows should be an iterable that yields each row (each row is a sequence of values). The rows should be the rows of the original image, so there should be self.height rows of self.width * self.planes values. If interlace is specified (when creating the instance), then an interlaced PNG file will be written. Supply the rows in the normal image order; the interlacing is carried out internally.

Note

Interlacing requires the entire image to be in working memory.

write_array(outfile, pixels)

Write an array that holds all the image values as a PNG file on the output file. See also write() method.

write_packed(outfile, rows)

Write PNG file to outfile. rows should be an iterator that yields each packed row; a packed row being a sequence of packed bytes.

The rows have a filter byte prefixed and are then compressed into one or more IDAT chunks. They are not processed any further, so if bitdepth is other than 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, the pixel values should have been scaled before passing them to this method.

This method does work for interlaced images but it is best avoided. For interlaced images, the rows should be presented in the order that they appear in the file.

write_passes(outfile, rows)

Write a PNG image to the output file.

Most users are expected to find the write() or write_array() method more convenient.

The rows should be given to this method in the order that they appear in the output file. For straightlaced images, this is the usual top to bottom ordering. For interlaced images the rows should have been interlaced before passing them to this function.

rows should be an iterable that yields each row (each row being a sequence of values).

write_preamble(outfile)
plotly.express.png.from_array(a, mode=None, info={})

Create a PNG Image object from a 2-dimensional array. One application of this function is easy PIL-style saving: png.from_array(pixels, 'L').save('foo.png').

Unless they are specified using the info parameter, the PNG’s height and width are taken from the array size. The first axis is the height; the second axis is the ravelled width and channel index. The array is treated is a sequence of rows, each row being a sequence of values (width*channels in number). So an RGB image that is 16 pixels high and 8 wide will occupy a 2-dimensional array that is 16x24 (each row will be 8*3 = 24 sample values).

mode is a string that specifies the image colour format in a PIL-style mode. It can be:

'L'

greyscale (1 channel)

'LA'

greyscale with alpha (2 channel)

'RGB'

colour image (3 channel)

'RGBA'

colour image with alpha (4 channel)

The mode string can also specify the bit depth (overriding how this function normally derives the bit depth, see below). Appending ';16' to the mode will cause the PNG to be 16 bits per channel; any decimal from 1 to 16 can be used to specify the bit depth.

When a 2-dimensional array is used mode determines how many channels the image has, and so allows the width to be derived from the second array dimension.

The array is expected to be a numpy array, but it can be any suitable Python sequence. For example, a list of lists can be used: png.from_array([[0, 255, 0], [255, 0, 255]], 'L'). The exact rules are: len(a) gives the first dimension, height; len(a[0]) gives the second dimension. It’s slightly more complicated than that because an iterator of rows can be used, and it all still works. Using an iterator allows data to be streamed efficiently.

The bit depth of the PNG is normally taken from the array element’s datatype (but if mode specifies a bitdepth then that is used instead). The array element’s datatype is determined in a way which is supposed to work both for numpy arrays and for Python array.array objects. A 1 byte datatype will give a bit depth of 8, a 2 byte datatype will give a bit depth of 16. If the datatype does not have an implicit size, like the above example where it is a plain Python list of lists, then a default of 8 is used.

The info parameter is a dictionary that can be used to specify metadata (in the same style as the arguments to the png.Writer class). For this function the keys that are useful are:

height

overrides the height derived from the array dimensions and allows a to be an iterable.

width

overrides the width derived from the array dimensions.

bitdepth

overrides the bit depth derived from the element datatype (but must match mode if that also specifies a bit depth).

Generally anything specified in the info dictionary will override any implicit choices that this function would otherwise make, but must match any explicit ones. For example, if the info dictionary has a greyscale key then this must be true when mode is 'L' or 'LA' and false when mode is 'RGB' or 'RGBA'.

plotly.express.png.write_chunks(out, chunks)

Create a PNG file by writing out the chunks.